Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 2, No 3 (2017)
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4-20 842
The problem of high losses of raw materials and products in the food industry is reviewed in the article. Brief lists of spoilage types as well as the available approaches to meat preservation are discussed including technological, physical and chemical. Natural antimicrobial substances are considered as alternative approaches, the existence of which has been known for more than 60 years. Antimicrobial peptides are the evolutionary ancient factor of innate immunity and are found in the cells and tissues of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. Present approaches to their classification, structure and mechanisms of action are discussed. The information from the Antimicrobial Peptide Database and the UniProt Protein Database is systematized in relation to the presence of antimicrobial substances in the tissues of pigs and cattle. Such parameters as the molecular weight, isoelectric point, charge, amino acid sequence and share a hydrophobic part, as well as a range of activities: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, etc. are presented in the article. On the basis of the review, alternative sources of antimicrobial proteins and peptides are proposed as well as technology for shelf life prolonging.
21-30 1023

Modern methods aimed to ensure the quality of foods require to implement and certify quality management systems in processing plants. In this case, to measure the effectiveness of existing QMS is often a very difficult task for the leadership due to the fragmentation of the measured metrics, or even lack thereof. This points to the relevance of the conducted research.
The criteria for effectiveness assessment of the production process of meat processing plants with the use of scaling methods and Shewhart control charts are presented in the article. The authors developed and presented the formulae for the calculation of single indicators used for the further comprehensive assessment. The algorithm of statistical evaluation of the process controllability, which allows in an accessible form to estimate the statistical control of production processes and to organize statistical quality control in the development of quality management systems, is presented The proposed procedure is based on a process approach, the essence of which is the application of the Deming cycle: “Plan — Do — Check — Act”, which makes it easy to integrate it into any existing quality management system.

31-38 536
It is found that when young growing pigs are fed with mixture of enzyme preparations of domestic manufacture, amilosubtilin G3x and cellolux-F, amilosubtilin G3x and protosubtilin G3x, for 150 days, the average live weight of pigs in experimental groups 1 and 2 increases by 13.1 kg and 5.3 kg, respectively, compared with control group. At the beginning of experiment, live weight of pigs ranged from 17.8 to 18.1 kg. In the end of experiment on day 150, the average live weight of pigs in control group (12 animals), experimental group 1 (12 animals), and experimental group 2 (12 animals) was 112.0 kg, 120.3 kg, and 125.1 kg, respectively. In two experimental groups, slaughter yield was 0.5% to 1.1% higher than in control group. Mean daily weight gain in control group, experimental group 1, and experimental group 2 was 628 g, 713 g, and 683 g, respectively. With minor differences in fat thickness, the lowest thickness was in animals from experimental group 1 (32.9 mm), while animals in control group and experimental group 2 had almost equal thickness of 33.6 mm. Higher values of live weight, slaughter yield and fat thickness have been obtained using a mixture of amilosubtilin G3x and cellolux-F. The annual economic benefit from the use of the studied enzyme supplements may range from 0.87 to 1.37 million rubles per 1,000 pigs.
39-48 522
The paper demonstrates that the use of the electromagnetic treatment based on an impact of the electromagnetic field (EMF) of the self-generating (SG) discharge increases the antioxidant activity (AOA) of beef and pork semi-prepared products in pieces. The semi-prepared products were treated using the experimental equipment that consisted of the plasma electromagnetic generator based on the self-generating (SG) discharge for generating strong electromagnetic oscillations. It was found that in the experimental samples subjected to the electromagnetic treatment, an amount of reduced glutathione, which determines the redox characteristics of the intracellular environment, and glutathione peroxidase, which protects an organism against oxidative damage, increased almost two-fold. These results suggest that the excessive development of free radicals was leveled, in particular, due to the regeneration of many cytosolic low weight molecular antioxidants. Moreover, lower level of malon dialdehyde, which characterizes lipid peroxidation, was detected in the treated semi-prepared products from beef and pork (by 10% and 2.5%, respectively,) compared to the control. The results of the study showed that an impact of the SG discharge contributed to a decrease in the microbial growth rate in the chilled semi-prepared products during storage. For example, on the 6th day, the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QМАFАnМ)did not exceed the established indicator, which correlated with the results of the organoleptic investigations. It was found that the electromagnetic treatment did not have a significant effect on the in vitro digestibility of the semi-prepared products; that is, it did not lead to deterioration of their biological value. The performed research allows us to suggest that the use of the SG discharge is expedient for increasing shelf life of meat semi-prepared products in pieces and developing a new ecologically pure technology for meat product storage..
49-65 658

In the study of proteomic profiles of proteins, many scientists stop at the stage of obtaining the final data of the experiment in the form of gels. They have got no information on the possibilities and prospects concerning the application of modern computer and bioinformatics resources that allow to convert the result from qualitative to quantitative form. The use of computer technology allowed to save the recorded images and carry out the calculations with chromatograms using digital video images.
Densitometry with the use of video technology is characterized by high calculation speed and low cost of consumables. Digitally archived chromatograms may be used at any time for a number of applications including calculation.
Thus, the “manual” bioinformatics analysis allows not only to use different densitometer software for conversion and storage of gels in digital form, but also to quantitatively interpret the results obtained.
This paper presents the methods for practical application of bioinformatics tools in the interpretation of protein profiles obtained by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis and converted into digital image. The aspects of the quantitative interpretation of electrophoretograms from one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) resulting from the studies of muscle tissue of farm animals are reviewed. Examples of various calculation software usage are given. The work in this direction will allow to considerably expand approaches for identification and quantification of protein markers related to quality, functionality and safety of food raw materials and finished products and to carry out metrological examination of the results for confirmation of product compliance.

66-78 588

The paper examines the issues associated with the integration of knowledge in meat product technology + computers + mathematical methods. The possibilities to use a computer system and mathematical methods for an optimal solution to tasks in the field of food biotechnology and meat product technology are demonstrated.
The applied software program SSS Bio realized in the computer system was developed and described. Using the one-way analysis of variance, which is one of the system modules, a comprehensive amount of statistical data for interpretation of the results was obtained. The program modules (correlation and regression analysis) allow establishing the model structure and parameters that link quantitative resulting and factorial variables, as well as assessing a degree of their correspondence with the experimental data. This kind of statistical analysis makes it possible to solve the main task of an experiment when the observed and resulting variables are quantitative.
Based on the experimental data obtained with the use of the computer system SSS Bio, the mathematical models of moisture binding capacity (MBC), moisture holding capacity (MHC) and fat binding capacity (FBC) in sausage meat were calculated for sausages with isolated soya protein depending on the fat and protein content using the module of multiple regression of the computer system.
The obtained stochastic dependence of changes in MBC (Y) on the total protein (X1) and fat (X2) content in sausage meat shows that at the constant level of fat, an increase in total protein favors a growth in MBC of sausage meat. However, a growth in MBC per unit of protein decreases with an increase in the fat amount.

79-85 1047
The article presents a comparative analysis of four methods for quantifying the protein-peptide complexes content in extracts obtained from animal raw materials, as well as the low- and highmolecular weight extract fractions: the direct spectrophotometric determination at wavelengths of 260 and 280 nm with subsequent calculation by the Kalckar formula; the biuret reaction by the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method; the method with Bradford reagent and the standard Lowry method. Experimental data analysis demonstrates that in case of the extract that contains protein-peptidic complexes in different molecular weights range, the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method shows the highest quality of protein concentration determination; while studying highmolecular weight fraction (more than 30 kDa), it is possible to obtain more information by combining the spectrophotometric method and the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method. Low-molecular weight fractions (less than 30 kD) should be investigated by complex methods including the spectrophotometric method, Lowry and Bradford methods. These methods make it possible to presumably estimate protein molecules size ranges (by amount of peptide bonds), and also to determine hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids presence.

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