Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 8, No 3 (2023)
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172-182 214

The article presents the statistics of iodine deficiency disorders and the possible causes of their occurrence. The methods of iodine deficiency correction on the basis of state programs are reviewed. The recommendations from the World Health Organization on the amount of iodine added to iodized salt are given. A review of scientific databases on the topic of iodine-containing food components of various nature and their classification are given based on the form of the components (organic or inorganic). The analysis of iodine preservation in foods incorporating iodine-containing components under various conditions of technological processing and storage has been carried out.

183-190 165

This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding amaranth flour to meat patties on their chemical composition. Four different variations of meat patties were prepared, with amaranth flour added at concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% in place of beef. The control sample was prepared without any addition. The results of the study showed that the addition of amaranth flour led to a significant decrease in the moisture content of the meat patties, while the proportions of carbohydrates, fat, and ash increased. Specifically, the patties with the highest concentration of amaranth flour (15%) had the highest proportions of carbohydrates and fat with the lowest proportion of moisture. The control sample had the highest moisture content and the lowest proportion of carbohydrates, fat, and ash. The addition of amaranth flour increased the water-holding capacity of the meat patties, with the highest increase observed in the sample with 15% amaranth flour (82.21%). The overall score of sensory evaluation of the meat patties did not significantly decrease with the addition of up to 10% amaranth flour, according to the sensory evaluation. The study provides evidence that up to 10% amaranth flour can be used as a substitute for beef in meat patties, which can lead to an increase in the fat and carbohydrate content and mineral composition and improvement of the water-holding capacity of the final product.

191-202 199

A unique muscle of pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) is m. semitendinosus, which contains the “red” (dark) part located mainly in the depth of the leg cut and the “white” (light) part located in the close proximity to the subcutaneous fat layer. Differences in the characteristics of its “red” and “white” parts can exert a significant effect on quality and economic indicators of meat products. The aim of this research was to study histological features of the microstructure and technological properties of muscle tissue from different parts of m. semitendinosus, obtained from slaughter pigs of Russian production. M. semitendinosus was excised from chilled porcine carcasses (N=20) 24 hours after slaughter in the process of deboning. Histological examination showed that the dark part of the muscle was characterized by a higher package density of fibers, higher number of capillaries and higher sarcomere length. On the contrary, the light part was characterized by a higher diameter of muscle fibers. Analysis of muscle fiber types showed that the proportion of type I, intermediate and type IIb fibers was higher by 9.3, 5.2 and 4.1%, respectively, in the dark part. Significant differences between the dark and light parts of m. semitendinosus were revealed in terms of the number and size of giant fibers: the light part was characterized by a larger number (by more than 5 times) of giant fibers with the fibers of a larger size (almost by 11%). The samples of minced meat from the dark and light parts showed significant (р<0.05) differences in the mean values of lightness, redness and yellowness (L*, a* and b*) by 6.00, 4.68 and 3.01 units, respectively, in raw samples, and by 6.53, 2.99 and 1.81, respectively, after curing with the nitrite mixture and cooking (р<0.05). The dark part of m. semitendinosus had higher pH values (р<0.05) both for raw and cooked samples. The consistency of the samples from the light part was less elastic, looser and more crumbly than that in the samples produced from the dark part of m. semitendinosus, which was confirmed by the structural-mechanical investigations. Therefore, this study showed significant differences between the dark and light parts of m. semitendinosus by microstructural and functional-technological characteristics. Significant variability by muscle fiber diameter, which was observed in the light part of this muscle, apparently should be taken into account in breeding work and quality assessment of pork from slaughter animals.

203-211 160

Comparative assessment results for quality indicators of meat samples obtained from Black Pied, Simmental and Aberdeen Angus young bulls and the influence of different temperature conditions on the quality of vacuum-packed beef during refrigerated storage are presented. The general chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and biological value of the samples based on the content of nonessential and essential amino acids were determined, as well as the protein quality index (PQI) and amino acid score. Analysis of the general chemical composition revealed higher moisture and protein content and the lowest fat content in Black Pied beef compared to other breeds. The amino acid composition of the protein showed a higher content of essential amino acids and the highest PQI value in Simmental beef. According to the calculation results, higher amino acid scores for lysine (149.1% and 129.1%) and tryptophane (200.0% and 240.0%) were noted in meat from Simmental and Aberdeen Angus young bulls, respectively. For the process of storing vacuum-packed meat in a cooled (at a temperature of 2.0 ± 0.5 °C) and superchilled state (minus 2.0 ± 0.5 °C) at a relative air humidity of 85%, a comparative analysis of changes in free amino acids and dynamics of hydrolytic and oxidative spoil- age of meat samples from various breeds was conducted. After 21 days of storage in a superchilled state, the content of free amino acids in Black Pied, Simmental and Aberdeen Angus beef was lower by 13.1% (P > 0.05), 24.1% (P ≤ 0.05) and 17.0% (P ≤ 0.01) compared to storage in a cooled state, respectively. For all studied samples stored in a cooled state, the acid number values were 40% to 41% (P ≤ 0.01) higher than in a superchilled state and peroxide number values were 20% to 23% (P ≤ 0.05) higher than in a superchilled state. It has been established that lowering the storage temperature of vacuum-packed beef helps to better preserve quality and ensure safety for meat from all breeds studied.

212-219 206

This paper reviews the nutritional properties and consumer perceptions of microalgae foods through various recent studies on alternative protein sources. Food choices, including meat consumption, are a common concern for humanity. Thus, we focused on whether microalgae foods have a sufficient value as a protein source and what nutritional benefits they have. Based on existing papers, we conducted a systematic review using Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus to comprehensively investigate and summarize the nutritional characteristics of microalgae, sustainable diets, and awareness of microalgae as an alternative protein source. Research has shown that microalgae have been consumed by humans as a protein source since ancient times, and contain enough protein to be used as an alternative protein source. They also have many other nutritional benefits, such as vitamins. We have found that consumers are increasingly interested in alternative protein sources, and the more they learn about microalgae, the more accepting they become. These results may suggest a need for further research to improve microalgae as an alternative protein source in the long run and develop them into a variety of foods.

220-226 158

The aim of the work was to study an effect of ascorbic acid and the extract of rosemary on fat oxidation, color characteristics, pH and moisture binding capacity of minced pork during cold storage. The antioxidants were introduced into minced pork in an amount of 0.05%. After addition of the antioxidant, minced meat was packed in the modified atmosphere with the high oxygen content and stored at a temperature of 4 ± 2 ºС for 15 days. The indicators of the hydrolytic (acid value) and oxidative (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value) spoilage, color characteristics, pH and moisture binding capacity (MBC) were determined during the whole storage period (0, 5, 8, 12, 15 days). An increase in the acid value was recorded in all minced meat samples during storage without a significant difference between the control and experimental samples. Addition of the antioxidants led to a decrease in the peroxide value after 12 days of minced meat storage. Malonaldehyde began to accumulate in the control and the sample with ascorbic acid on the 8th day of storage and in the sample with the rosemary extract on the 12th day. The results obtained point to inhibition of fat oxidation in the minced meat samples with the antioxidants. Addition of the antioxidants facilitated an increase in redness compared to the control. Contrary to the rosemary extract, addition of ascorbic acid led to a decrease in pH and MBC of minced meat. Therefore, the use of the rosemary extract exerted more effective action of minced pork stability during storage compared to the same dose of ascorbic acid.

227-236 144

The article summarizes the results of studies based on scientific publications on the effect of magnetic fields (MF) and electric fields (EF) on the kinetics of freezing processes applied onto biological tissue and on their properties. The processes of freezing food media on installations equipped with the Cells Alive System (CAS) magnetic system manufactured by ABI Co., Ltd., Japan are considered in this article. It is shown that the majority of researchers did not confirm the benefits claimed by the CAS system developers in comparison with the processes of fast freezing in the chambers without the magnetic field. In the case of using the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) with high field induction values, the effect is more pronounced. The application of strong static or alternating EF contributes to the creation of a fine-grained structure of ice, reduces the freezing duration and decreases mass loss during the food thawing.

237-251 177

A measure of correlation or strength of association between random variables is the correlation coefficient. In scientific research, correlation analysis is most often carried out using various correlation coefficients without explaining why this particular coefficient was chosen and what the resulting value of this coefficient means. The article discusses Spearman correlation coefficient, Kendall correlation coefficient, phi (Yule) correlation coefficient, Cramér’s correlation coefficient, Matthews correlation coefficient, Fechner correlation coefficient, Tschuprow correlation coefficient, rank-biserial correlation coefficient, point-biserial correlation coefficient, as well as association coefficient and contingency coefficient. The criteria for applying each of the coefficients are given. It is shown how to establish the significance (insignificance) of the resulting correlation coefficient. The scales in which the correlated variables should be located for the coefficients under consideration are presented. Spearman rank correlation coefficient and other nonparametric indicators are independent of the distribution law, and that is why they are very useful. They make it possible to measure the contingency between such attributes that cannot be directly measured, but can be expressed by points or other conventional units that allow ranking the sample. The benefit of rank correlation coefficient also lies in the fact that it allows to quickly assess the relationship between attributes regardless of the distribution law. Examples are given and step-by-step application of each coefficient is described. When analyzing scientific research and evaluating the results obtained, the strength of association is most commonly assessed by the correlation coefficient. In this regard, a number of scales are given (Chaddock scale, Cohen scale, Rosenthal scale, Hinkle scale, Evans scale) grading the strength of association for correlation coefficient, both widely recognized and not so well known.

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Many meat processing enterprises use the frozen raw meat. Its defrosting and thawing is a crucial technological operation that fundamentally affects the quality of food products. The experience and knowledge obtained directly in the workshop in the process of thawing the raw materials and their using to obtain a specific finished product are of great importance. Defrosting and thawing of the frozen beef meat, as one of the stages of raw meat processing, still remains a challenging process in industrial food production. The importance of this process is constantly increasing due to the growing volumes of frozen raw materials processed in food enterprises. Scientific research shows that one of the most efficient methods of defrosting and thawing is the process of meat thawing with saturated water steam under vacuum. When applying the steam the raw materials is heated at its least and minimal losses are observed, while the duration of the process is significantly reduced. This work examines the process of beef meat defrosting and thawing with simultaneous shaking and crumpling the frozen mass, which can be called as massaging of raw materials. As studies have shown, this method of thawing makes it possible to reduce losses down to almost zero and obtain raw materials with good structural characteristics for the production of a finished product with a wide range of consumer properties. The obtained experimental curves of changes in the mass and temperature of raw materials make it possible to analyze the kinetics of heat transfer and mass transfer processes at the macro- and micro levels of the food system, which serve as the basis for modeling and controlling the technological process. This study presents the results of conventional defrosting and thawing of the raw meat but combined with massaging. Studies of the parameters of processing modes have shown that the proposed program makes it possible to use efficiently the design and technological features of the defroster-massager in order to obtain the raw beef for the production of high-quality food products. The results of experimental studies and their analysis allow making conclusion about the prospects of applying this process for the other types of raw meat materials before the main technological processing of raw materials.

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