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Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 2, No 4 (2017)
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https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2017-2-4

4-19 580
Abstract
At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures) and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin). Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %), and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %). Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the C-terminal fragments of the myosin heavy chain were found, which were absent in sample 3. Also, the significant content of myoglobin was revealed in samples 2 and 3, and the myosin light chain was found in sample 1. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of muscle proteins myosin and myoglobin, which can be a source of new functional peptides, was observed. Based on the results of tandem mass-spectrometry, the proteins and natural short peptides present in the analyzed extracts were identified by the obtained masses. They belonged mainly to different peptides of equine myoglobin. Also, we identified several fragments, among which fast skeletal muscle troponin T and muscle creatine kinase were found. The obtained materials can be regarded as an experimental basis for the directed impact of starter cultures with a possibility to predict the protein and peptide composition of a finished product including with the aim of obtaining biologically active peptides.
20-34 908
Abstract

Meat is a perishable product with a short shelf life and therefore short selling times. Therefore, cold chain management in meat supply is of utmost importance for the maintenance of quality and safety of meat/meat products. Raw meat/meat products are likely to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and/or spoilage bacteria, and should be kept at temperatures that do not result in a risk to health. The cold chain should not be interrupted at all times along the meat distribution chain. The complexity of global meat supply chain, with frequently long distribution chains associated with transportation of the product within one country, from one to another country and from one to another continent, makes the solutions for the chilling and freezing regimes, as well as monitoring of time-temperature profiles, very important for the overall success in delivery of product which will be accepted by consumer for its freshness and safety levels. From recently, there are several available options for control and management of the cold chain, such as chilled and frozen storage combinations, superchilling, ionizing radiation, biopreservation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), active packaging, wireless sensors, supported with the software-based cold chain database (CCD).

35-43 461
Abstract

This study was carried out to examine the reddening of meat products due to the addition of natural yellow salt (YS) and carbon monoxide (CO). Following YS or NaCl addition at 2% to pork subsequent to nitrite (0~100 ppm) treatment, color development due to this addition was analyzed optically. Heme pigment content in the meat was also determined spectrophotometrically. YS was found to bring about greater reddening than NaCl, indicating residual nitrite and nitrate content to be significantly higher in meat containing YS, through the amount of either was quite small. The nitrite itself in YS could never explain the color formation by the YS. Because the YS included not only nitrite but also nitrate, the effects of nitrate on the color stability of cooked cured pork were examined. Nitrate inhibited the nitrite decrement and discoloration in the cooked cured ham. The degradation rate of nitrite was clearly found to decrease with nitric acid content. Nitrate does not appear to serve as a donor of nitrite, but rather inhibits nitrite reduction in cooked meat products, with consequent prolongation of color stability. Nitrate, observed in many rock salt and also in this case, could enhance the color formation. CO treatment of pork caused the formation of carboxy myoglobin (COMb) with consequent reddening of the meat. COMb was shown to be heat-stable and form stably at pH 5.0 to 8.0 and to be extractable with water, but was barely extractable at all with acetone. Nitric oxide was found to have greater affinity toward myoglobin (Mb) than CO. Nitrosyl Mb was noted to be stable in all meat products examined. CO was seen to be capable of controlling the extent of lipid oxidation.

44-61 824
Abstract

The interest of scientists, physicians, pediatricians, general practitioners to the problem of intestinal dysbiosis is caused by the fact that there are very close relations between the intestinal microbiocenosis disorders and organic and functional pathology not only of the gastrointestinal tract, but also of other organs. For more than 50 years probiotics have been the leading tool for correction of intestinal microbiocenosis. However, the response of intestinal microbiota to exogenous intake of probiotics is variable, or is completely absent. The article presents the analysis of the literature data and results of our own experimental studies on human volunteers, fully confirming previous findings on laboratory animals, according to which the probiotic microorganisms are foreign and do not survive in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, and their interaction with the host organism has the character of «host against probiotic». The results of the comparative study on the effectiveness of 18 modern preparations for correction of intestinal microbiocenosis at antibiotic-associated dysbiosis in experiments on animals are given. The comparative experimental research on the effectiveness of modern preparations that are frequently used in clinical practice as well as recent innovative commercial and experimental preparations (Actoflor-C. Stimbifid plus, Stimex) regarding intestinal microbiota recovery at antibioticassociated dysbiosis in conventional white mice was carried out.

62-75 580
Abstract

At present, a significant experience in the effective processing of secondary raw material resources of the meat industry has been accumulated. However, a proportion of their use for food purposes remains to be low. First of all, this concerns processing of the multi-chambered stomach of farm animals. A prospective direction of scientific research is the complex use both of food and biotechnological potential of these by-products. In this work, a possibility of the enzymatic modification of the collagen-containing bovine rumen with the pepsin solution (lysate) was studied. The pepsin solution was obtained by the autolysis method from the enzyme containing chamber of the cattle stomach — the whole abomasum; whereas, usually the lysate is obtained from the abomasal mucosa, which separation is quite a labor consuming process. The investigations established that the lysate prepared on the basis of the whole bovine abomasa had the proteolytic activity along with the collagenase one. To increase the effectiveness of pepsinogen extraction, the tough connective tissue of abomasa was minced and loosened with the acidic solution of polyphosphate, which also has the bacteriostatic activity. Based on the results of the experiment, the rational technology of pepsin extraction from the whole abomasa without preliminary separation of the mucosa was developed. In addition, a possibility of the enzymatic modification of the collagen containing bovine rumen using the obtained lysate with improvement of the functional and technological characteristics was proved. The regimes and parameters of the process of the enzymatic modification of the rumen tissue properties were experimentally established.

76-95 585
Abstract

The modern approach to quality assurance of food products based on the ISO 9000 standards indicates the need for the implementation of quality management systems in processing plants. According to the analysis of scientific publication databases (Science Direct and Web of Science), it is established that only 0.5–1.7% of publications are related to studying meat of slaughter animals (except for birds) concerning the presence of Campylobacter. The priority method of investigation is PCR. Ready-to-use PCR test system was developed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on the basis of selected gene-specific primers to bacteria of Campylobacter genus. Specificity of the test system is established for Gram-negative bacteria of Salmonella, Escherichia, and Proteus genera, and for oxidase-positive Aeromonas. Gene-specific primers for Campylobacter were selected and ready-to-use PCR test system was developed on their basis. It was found that the selected primers have 100% convergence to the genome of Campylobacter genus bacteria, the PCR efficiency is not less than 95%, and the detection limit is not more than 1× 104 CFU/g. When estimating the specificity of the primers, it was taken into account that the bacteria of Campylobacter genus may be incorporated in a consortium with intestine microbiome, mainly with Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. However, Bolton’s enrichment medium is selective and, during the cultivation process, suppresses the growth of Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria. It was found that the selected primers were 100% specific and did not give false positive reactions with this group of microorganisms. The developed test system was successfully validated in a cycle of qualitative tests in the FEPAS system and implemented into laboratory practice. It was proved that the developed test system may be used both in screening at the stages of Campylobacter enrichment and in identification of pure culture of the microorganism.

96-113 481
Abstract

This review is devoted to formation of the integrated scientific foundation based on the data of different statistical publications (meta data) that are linked to «onko-« risks associated with meat products. In October 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) published a report, in which red meat was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In addition, the WHO experts made a conclusion about carcinogenicity of processed meat (meat that has been processed by smoking, salting, fermentation or other processes to extend storage). However, globally, there is no standardized method for reviewing the vast amount of studies on the mechanisms, by which lifestyle factors can cause cancer. At present, the work was begun on the development and testing of new methodology for performing systematic reviews of mechanistic investigations associated with a diet, nutrition, physical activity, and the development and progression of different types of cancer.

A topical analysis of research in this direction will allow formation of basic meta data associated with «onko-» risks, linked to meat products, detection of basic and accompanying factors influencing «onko-» risks. The obtained information will enable the creation of a scientific reserve for further work on studying an effect of components entering into or developing in meat products associated with «onko-» risks.
114-128 569
Abstract
There was proposed the system of classification of poultry by grades, taking into account the rate of individual bone-in and boneless pieces, and minced meat according to objective quality indexes, namely the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein in terms of protein quality (ratio of tryptophan to hydroxyproline), the ratio of the energy value and other indicators established for land and water-floating bird and is comparable to similar measures for beef and pork. Was given the quantitative criteria for rating the quality of poultry meat for content of muscle, connective and fatty tissues (skin with fat) in gutted carcass and its parts, installed there output and factors consumer value (FCV). Also was given the comparative rate of biological value of raw meat of slaughter animals and poultry, poultry meat mechanically deboning and nutritional supplements of animal and vegetable origin. It is established, that poultry meat mechanically separated on the functional-technological properties and bioavailability significantly superior to animal and vegetable proteins. The biological value of the lump meat of chickens-broilers and hens egg directions 1 grade has values 73.12 and 72.92%, the same time the biological value of goose meat from deboning carcasses of 2 and 1 grades has high values and varies from 79.77 to 81.14%. The new approach of the definition types of meat poultry and poultry products increases the range of foods allowed by the introduction in the recipe of sausage stuffing alternative sources of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin, adequate and balanced protein composition that is a definite contribution to the solution of the problem of providing the population with goods of high quality and enhance production efficiency.


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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)