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Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 3, No 3 (2018)
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https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2018-3-3

4-11 484
Abstract

The aspects of the blueberry concentrated juice application in the production of dried pork as an ingredient of the salt mixture were studied. The organoleptic evaluation of the obtained products using concentrated blueberry juice with different concentrations of solids was carried out. The chemical composition of the finished experimental products is investigated. The influence of the concentrated juice of blueberries to the number of QMAFAnM on the surface of the product (bacteriostatic effect). It is shown that dry-cured pork, injected with a salt mixture with concentrated blueberry juice, has higher taste and aromatic characteristics, improved consistency. In this work, the chemical composition of experimental samples of dry-cured pork is evaluated. It is shown that the use of concentrated blueberry juice in salting increases the moisture content and essential micronutrients. Was found that the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative-anaerobic microorganisms depends on the amount of dry substances, in particular organic acids, in concentrated blueberry juice, namely, with an increase in the concentration of blueberry juice used in the salt mixture, the amount of QMAFAnM on the surface of the product decreases. Concentrated blueberry juice acts as an inhibitor of growth of pathogenic microflora. On the basis of the conducted researches the optimum content of dry substances for application of the concentrated juice from blueberries at a salting of dry pork is established.

12-26 535
Abstract

The aspects of biochemical transformation of natural lipids of vegetable, fish, and animal origin are considered on the model of biotechnical aspects of triglyceride transformation into products of various purpose. The indicators of biological efficacy of fats are presented regarding the systematization by groups of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Some features of simulation of natural processes of hydrolytic fat degradation into energy-intensive products are discussed. At the same time, aspects of fat intake and their biochemical transformation in food systems by human enzymes, and biochemical transformation of lipids in vitro in the presence of commercial enzyme preparations were studied. The aspects of free fatty acid transformation into esters are considered for justifying their use.

27-35 398
Abstract

This article highlights the problem of the use of chemical preservatives in the food industry. The prospects of implementation natural substances with an antimicrobial effect for prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of food products are also discussed. Methods for isolating of antimicrobial substances from epithelial and mucous tissues of animal origin are proposed, taking into account the minimization of losses of their biological activity in accordance with the structure of protein-peptide molecules. Based on the results of the determination of antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using flow cytometry, stains Eva Green and PI, the most promising raw materials were determined and the feasibility of using weakly acid extraction followed by trypsinolysis for releasing antimicrobial substances from preprotein molecules and ultrafiltration for purification from high-molecular compounds were investigated.

36-55 561
Abstract

One of the ways to address the food quality issues facing the industry is the development of standardized and certified methods related to the conduct of in-depth studies of biochemical indicators of quality and safety of meat and meat products. The world laboratory practice in the field of food quality and safety shows a constant expansion of the list of controlled indicators of food raw materials and products. An important feature of the modern period in the development of biomedical and biotechnological research is the introduction of a whole complex of postgenomic technologies, which are based on a systematic approach to the study of the functioning of the mammalian proteome in various physiological and pathological conditions, including the formation and development of alimentary-dependent pathologies. In this regard, the problem of multilateral study of food products, in particular their identification, is the most relevant, because the modern technology of their production has undergone significant changes and requires the development of “gentle “ processing modes. They concern raw materials and auxiliary materials used at all stages of production. This and new technologies of production of protein products from plant raw materials, as well as the introduction of food raw materials and food additives of artificial origin and the excess introduction of additives of plant and animal origin can cause falsification of products, as well as affect the health of the consumer. Food quality assessment includes the control of components of finished products. It is most difficult to determine the proportion of muscle protein in multi-component meat products that have undergone heat treatment. Therefore, in practice, when assessing the quality of food products, there is a need to identify its real composition in accordance with the declared normative documents. Currently, a promising area of research in the field of determining the composition of finished food is the selection of biomarkers of various components. Therefore, it is important to develop a methodology for the identification of biochemical changes in food raw materials under the influence of technological factors using modern research methods. This paper provides an overview of the protein and peptide analysis methodology, including the latest technologies that are becoming increasingly important.

56-63 447
Abstract

The paper presents the studies on the autolytic transformations in pork and beef samples by proteomic methods. The changes in the protein fractions were analyzed by one-dimensional and two- dimensional electrophoresis with the following identification by mass-spectrometric methods. The changes in muscle proteins in the course of autolytic processes were found. For example, the intensity of the protein spots of pyruvate kinase, myosin light chains and adenylate kinase increased during autolysis. The fragments of myosin light chains appeared. The activity of the endogenous enzymes, such as calpain 3 and cathepsin D in the course autolysis was also studied. During the first 24 hours after animal slaughter, the activity of these enzymes reached the maximum level and then decreased. The results of the performed investigations confirmed that pork and beef have different rate of autolysis but similar proteomic changes.

64-73 525
Abstract

The article describes rationale for using by-products as a source of high-value protein and a number of macro- and micronutrients. The main directions of using the different types of by-products are discussed. Classifications of by-products in different countries are given. The influence of antemortem factors on the quality of by-products is shown. Simultaneously, the ways of optimal by-product utilization are considered depending on their type.

74-88 487
Abstract

To provide preventive measures for solving the problem of micronutrient deficiency, a new effective biologically safe method of enrichment lamb through the intervention of the cattle rations with feed supplements containing iodine and selenium in organic form has been developed. An increase in the iodine, selenium and zinc content in meat of the test animals fed enriched diets was noted, with more significant localization of elements to be registered in the meat from the ram lamb fed the «Yoddar-Zn» feed supplement together with organic selen preparation «DAFS-25» (Zn - 980 mg/100g; Se — 53.9 mg/100 g; I — 77.6 mg/100 g). So, 100 g of m. longissimus dorsi contained 8.2; 77.0 and 51.7 % of the recommended daily intake of these elements, respectively, that proved the feasibility of further output of the functional products with balanced essential nutrients. Based on the data on greater localization of microelements in meat from the ram lamb fed «Yoddar-Zn» with «DAFS-25», we made jerked snacks from the raw materials obtained from the animals of this test group. In processing, the zinc content in the product decreased by 21.3 %, iodine — 26.5 %, selenium — 16.3 % and made 771 mg/100 g, 39.72 mg/100 g, and 57.01 mg/100 g, respectively, that met the daily norm for 6.4; 56.7 and 38.0 % (for 100 g of product). In the vacuum-packed snacks, the loss of zinc was 11.3 %, iodine — 14.3 %, selenium — 12.6 % from the original content. After 3 months of storage, the zinc content in 100 g of the finished products was 5.7; selenium — 49.6; iodine — 32.6 % of the daily requirement. Investigations of physiological effect of the jerked snacks on the body of the laboratory animals were performed. Stimulating effect of selenium and iodine on the hematopoietic function of the experimental animals was revealed. The study of the functional activity of the thyroid gland found that the experimental animals’ content of thyroid stimulating hormone in blood serum was significantly higher than that of the control rats.

89-98 678
Abstract

The scientific direction of multicomponent food modeling with a certain set of indicators for nutritional and energy values is still topical in the whole world. At present, the mathematical foundations of solving tasks by a single criterion (single-criterion optimization) are well studied. However, multi-criteria tasks, in which a system is to be optimized by several criteria simultaneously, exist in various fields of engineer solutions, research and management activities. The aim of the work is to theoretically substantiate the methodology of the multi-criteria model of food recipe optimization in different settings for different criteria of nutritional, biological and energy values, as well as amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral adequacy. It is proposed to use an effective method of multi-criteria optimization — the Pareto method. Since the Pareto-optimal solution can be not the only one, the definition of the Pareto-optimal set of solutions is given as a set of non-dominated alternatives. The authors propose not to select non-dominative options of food products, but slightly extend a subset by choosing a nucleus in the initial set, in which all alternatives are incomparable to each other and any option that is not included in the nucleus is dominated by at least one alternative of the nucleus. The following reduction of the options can be achieved by imposing other tighter constraints, for example, by increasing the threshold value for the index of agreement C and decreasing the threshold value for the index of disagreement. The use of the IT-technologies realized by the methods of multi-criteria structure optimization and mathematical programming allows correcting and optimizing food recipes by different criteria of the non-linear character, structuring the obtained set of alternatives and detecting the optimal food recipe option with the targeted quality, composition and properties or a diet for a particular population category with consideration for the therapeutic and prophylactic direction.



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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)