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Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 3, No 4 (2018)
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https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2018-3-4

4-15 273
Abstract

Meat and meat products color evaluation ability of a computer vision system (CVS) is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the instrumental values in all three dimensions (L*, a*, b*) between the CVS and colorimeter. The CVS-generated colors were more similar to the sample of the meat products visualized on the monitor, compared to colorimeter-generated colors in all (100 %) individual trials performed. The use of CVS should be considered a superior alternative to the traditional method for measuring color of meat and meat products.

16-22 154
Abstract

Based on results of fatty acid composition in serum of hyperlipidemic rats atherogenic index (AI) was calculated. The objects of the study were a commercial bioactive additive (BAA) containing a mixture of peptides isolated from the vessels of farm animals (Scientific and Production center of Revitalization and Health (SPRH), Russia), low molecular weight (LMUF), Mm<5kDa) and medium molecular weight (MMUF), Mm 5–30 kDa) ultrafiltrates of porcine aorta extract. Experimental hyperlipidemia was stimulated in male Wistar rats. After modeling animals in group 2 consumed 0.9 % sodium chloride solution, 3 groups — BAA, 4 groups — LMUF, 5 groups — MMUF, 1 group consisted of intact rats, contained under similar conditions. All studied samples were administered per os in a quantity of 0.3 mg protein / kg body weight for 14 days. As a result of the study, it was noted that in serum of rats treated with BAA there was polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increase by 67.2 % (P<0.05), while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was decreased by 29.5 % (P<0.05) compared to the control, but there was no change in AI. Per os administration of LMUF caused a similar effect as BAA: there was an increase in the proportion of PUFA by 2.5 times (p<0.05) compared with control, while MUFA decreased by 39.7 % (P<0.05), mainly due to a reduction of oleic acid by 66.3 % (P<0.05). The relative content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased by 27.8 % (P<0.05), mainly due to reduction of palmitic acid content by 45.3 % (P<0.05) compared to the control, which contributed to a decrease in serum AI by 56.4 % (P<0.05). Per os administration of MMUF did not impact on relative content of MUFA, although the share of oleic acid was reduced by 48.0 % (P<0.05), there was also an increase of PUFA content by 85.8 % (P<0.05) compared with the control, serum AI reduced by 76.9 % (P<0.05) compared with the control group also due to a decrease of palmitic acid by 78.2 % (P<0.05).

23-31 223
Abstract

Products, that meet the requirements of Technical regulations of the Customs Union are possible to produce only from high-quality and safe raw materials of animal origin. However, it is necessary to identify the risks associated with its use, assessment and indication of management mechanisms. In the production of meat products, the mechanisms for managing the identified risks associated with meat raw materials will be different. The aim of our study is to identify the most important risk factors associated with meat from different species of animals, including poultry, currently used in meat processing plants. The emphasis was placed on the meat intended for the production of smoked sausages, as these products are subjected to minimal temperature effects, respectively, under adverse conditions, almost always retains the original parameters of the feedstock (for example, the presence of antibiotics, pathogens). The screening microbiological method for the presence of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents was used to identify the chemical risk factor. Classical microbiological methods were used to determine the biological risk factor. It was found that the chemical risk factor (the presence of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents) creates a biological problem, i.e. the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens. Thus, in the study of beef, we found that the percentage of samples contaminated with antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents was 26.7 %, pork –35.3 %, and poultry meat — 42.9 %. At the same time, Salmonella spp. was absent in the same beef samples and the monocytogenes, however, have been found and they have demonstrated their resistance to antibiotics. In pork and poultry all bacteria were found. Perhaps, these species of animals and poultry, strains of microorganisms have the greatest antibacterial resistance.

32-37 185
Abstract

Eight protein substances that undergo changes during autolysis were found using the electrophoretic methods with the following mass spectrometric identification. The revealed protein substances have different origin: structural proteins (fragments of troponins T and myosin light chains), and metabolic proteins (creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and alpha-enolase). The decomposition of the fractions of fast skeletal muscle troponin T in 28.0 kDa, 27 kDa and 26.5 kDa was most pronounced.

Identification of constitutive proteins and detection of the products of post — mortem degradation of protein molecules make them suitable candidates for meat quality markers and the following study of these specific fragments will lead to better understanding of the proteolytic activities that take part in the post mortem muscle transformation into meat.

38-48 217
Abstract

The article presents the study results of changes in the odor profile and color characteristics in beef under various heat treatment conditions. More than 120 volatile substances are identified. In samples subjected to short-term and minor heat treatment, 2-methyl-butene and ethyl hexanoate were found in significant amounts. In samples subjected to prolonged roasting at low temperature, as well as in samples subjected to processing at higher temperature for less time period, was found 3,5-dimethyl–4-octanone. Analysis of changes in color characteristics showed that increase in heating temperature results in significant darkening of the samples. The maximum heating temperature of 210 °C had the most significant effect on the color change. After heating for more than 30 minutes, carbonization of the samples occurred. The results indicate that controlling the temperature and duration of heat treatment helps to obtain the finished product of desired color.

49-57 191
Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies of organoleptic (color, consistency, water content) and functional-technological (pH, moisture binding capacity and loss of juice during cooking) properties of muscle tissue of NOR and PSE pork, obtained from animals transported at distances of 50 and 170 km, depending on pre-slaughter preparation. Experimental data of systematization of pork properties and calculation of the quantitative value of meat properties allowed to establish pork belonging to the quality groups NOR and PSE and to form a data bank of organoleptic and functional-technological parameters of pork muscle tissue entering the meat processing enterprises of the Southern Federal district. It is shown, that pork from rested animals had higher organoleptic and functional-technological parameters and higher quality levels of meat properties. The results of the studies confirm the positive impact of pre-slaughter preparation of pigs on the quality of their meat raw materials



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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)