Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 2, No 2 (2017)
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Fat reduction in meat products is demanded by consumers concerning
health issues but represents a serious challenge for meat industry as fatty tissue plays an important role for the products properties. Because of that, a special attention is paid to the substances that could replace fatty tissue in meat products. Inulin represents a non digestible fructooligosaccharide that on the one hand represents a good prebiotic substance and from the other hand posses such technological propeties that make it a good fat replacer. In  aqueous systems inulin forms a gel having a structure similar to fats, it has neutral taste and smell and have no impact on the aroma of meat products. Inulin could be added to meat products in form of powder as well as a water suspension. Low fat fermented sausages with good sensory quality could be produced with the addition of inulin as a fat replacer, and such products have a
bit lower pH- and aw-value and contain a higher number of lactic acid bacteria then conventional products. In heat treated sausages, inulin improves water holding capacity and stability of the low fat meat batter, which reduces cooking loss and shows no adverse effect on the sensory properties of the low fat product. But, there are also certain limitations because it should be paid attention to the degree of polymerization as well as the amount of inulin added the product. Otherwise, on the one hand there could be some adverse effects
on sensory properties of the product and from the other hand an excessive amount of inulin could lead to digestive problems by consumers.
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It was established that studied meat raw material from young bulls of different breeds (Group I — red steppe, Group II — black-andwhite, Group III — Kalmyk, 15 animals per group) was balanced by amino acid and fatty acid composition and by fatty acid ratio.
In terms of safety, it corresponds to all parameters standardized in SanPiN
The biological value of meat from beef bulls is higher compared to dairy bulls by 3.7% and 0.9%. In all groups, the essential amino acid content in meat proteins exceeds the values recommended by FAO/WHO for humans.
Oleic acid had the highest concentration in the intramuscular fat (38.71, 39.02, 40.16% in Groups I, II and III, respectively). Palmitic acid content in the sample of  intramuscular fat from red steppe bulls was 26.40%, in black-and-white bulls — 25.86%, and in Kalmyk bulls — 25.07%. Stearic acid concentration was 21.09%, 21.95% and 20.41% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Thus, the intramuscular fat of Kalmyk bulls is characterized by a lower content of saturated fatty acids compared to herdmates from Groups I and II: palmitic acid by 1.33% and 0.79%, stearic acid by 0.68% and 1, 54% and myristic acid by 0.37% and 0.15%, respectively. The content of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and myristic) in intramuscular fat samples from Group I was higher than in Groups II and III, and the content of stearic acid was the lowest. Polyunsaturated
fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the intramuscular fat of all breeds is sufficiently high. Thus, total PUFA content in Group I was 5.64%, in Group II — 6.42% and in Group III — 7.18%. While differences in PUFA content were insignificant, animals in Group III had a higher PUFA level compared to Groups I and II by 1.54 and 0.76%, respectively.
Ecologically pure food product has been obtained in the Southern
Urals with its increased anthropogenic burden on natural and agricultural ecosystems. In Group III, lead content is lower than in Groups I and II by 15.8 and 30.4%, copper content is lower by 54.5 and 60.0% and cadmium content is lower by 50.0%. The content of cesium, as a radionuclide, does not exceed the specifications and is equal to 3.0 Bq/kg.
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The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptens
or polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified properties
for consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.
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The polymer material (РА/РЕ/Eva) with a width of 55 μm was studied. Sterilization was carried out on the unit GU–200 at doses from 3 to 18 kGy in the Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation, Rosatom, Moscow, Russia. The structure of the polymer
material samples was studied by IR spectroscopy before and after irradiation in a range of 400–5000 сm–1. According to the results of the analysis of the IR spectrum structure, the changes in the structure were insignificant upon irradiation at doses up to 6 kGy. Upon irradiation at doses from 9 kGy and higher, an increase in quantity of ester groups (2340 сm–1) and insignificant increase in other functional groups were observed, which can suggest a simultaneous process of intra-molecular cross-linking with the intermediate
stage of cross-linking occurring with formation of vinylene groups. This causes destruction of a polymer material and radiation oxidation. These disorders can lead to changes in physico-mechanical and barrier parameters of a polymer material, which can be notably reflected in the shelf life of agricultural products.
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Technological properties were studied for chilled beef of different classes concerning the color of muscle tissue obtained from Hereford (beef cattle) and White-and-Black (beef and dairy cattle) breeds. The color of Longissimus dorsi muscle in CIELab units was
examined using Konica Minolta CM‑2300d spectrophotometer. Based on the measurement of muscle tissue color, the classification was carried out according to color standards. According to differences in color, beef was sorted into three groups using color standards and L*, a*, b* values: Class 1 (41.41, 22.16, 18.46 in average), Class 4 (34.75, 22.0, 14.0 in average), Class 5 (28.92, 13.10, 9.24 in average). In a conveyor environment, pH was also measured 24 hours after slaughter: 5.28 to 5.36 for Class 1, 5.59 to 5.60 for Class 4, 6.50 to 6.51 for Class 5. In beef samples (n = 15), the following laboratory parameters were determined: water holding capacity (WHC), moisture loss during heat treatment, structural and mechanical properties, microstructural properties. To establish the relationship between color and technological properties of beef, the L* (lightness) parameter was chosen, which was the most different between the samples. Correlations between L* (lightness) and technological properties were established: negative with pH (0.95) and with water holding capacity (0.92), positive with moisture loss during thermal treatment (0.99) and with shear force (0.96).
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The results of research are presented for new stud lines of Kalmyk cattle: Pirat 6626, Pokhvalny 8643, and Ozhog 6136.
To assess meat productivity, carcass morphological composition, physical and chemical properties, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of muscle tissue, control slaughter of young bulls (15 months old) of different breed lines was carried out. The slaughter
showed a higher weight of fresh carcass in bulls of Pirat 6626 line, which was 215.9 kg. Weight of Pokhvalny 8643 and Ozhog 6136 lines was lower, 212.5 kg in average. Bulls of new lines insignificantly differed by the dressed weight and slaughter yield amounted
to 221.4 to 223.9 kg (56.0% to 56.4%), respectively. At slaughter, carcasses of all experimental animals were characterized by a good yield of deboned meat (82.3 to 82.6%) with a relatively small bone content (17.4 to 17.7%). Compared to bulls of Pokhvalny 8643 and Ozhog 6136 lines, Pirat 6626 line had water binding capacity higher
by 1.96 and 1.09%, and juice loss during cooking was lower by 0.76 and 0.90%.
Chemical composition analysis of deboned meat showed a higher protein content in meat from Pokhvalny 8643 bulls (23.41%) than from Pirat 6626 (20.95%) and Ozhog 6136 (21.75%) lines. Fat content in the meat of Pirat 6626 and Ozhog 6136 bulls was higher than in Pokhvalny 8643 bulls and amounted to 2.84 and 2.99%.
In proteins of animals from all three lines, the content of essential amino acids exceeds the levels recommended by FAO/WHO for humans; there are no limiting amino acids.
The maximum lysine amino acid score was observed in proteins of Pirat 6626 animals, which was higher by 3.6% than in Pokhvalny 8643 line and by 7.9% than in Ozhog 6136 line; leucine and isoleucine were higher in proteins of Pirat 6626 and Ozhog 6136 lines.
Valine amino acid score was higher in muscle proteins of Pirat 6626 bulls (120.0%), than in the proteins of Pokhvalny 8643 (110.0%) and Ozhog 6136 (114.0%) lines.
In Pokhvalny 8643 bulls, methionine amino acid score had the smallest difference with the reference protein. The minimal difference in phenylalanine amino acid score with the reference protein was also observed in Pokhvalny 8643 bulls and amounted to 5.0%.

According to the results of protein biological value calculation, Pokhvalny 8643 line has more balanced ratio of essential amino acids of 89.7%, while Pirat 6626 and Ozhog 6136 lines show ratios of 81.6% and 81.7%, respectively.
Differences in fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from bulls of all three lines are insignificant, but Pokhvalny 8643 line shows some superiority in the content of  polyunsaturated acids by 0.48 to 0.33%.
Sensory assessment of boiled beef and meat broth quality from new lines of Kalmyk young cattle was «good» and «very good».

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