Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 6, No 4 (2021)
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294-299 239

There is an urgent need to develop new strategies to minimize the environmental impact of animal production and support sustainability of food production and consumption. Feed additives have been for a long time used in animal nutrition to improve animal growth and performance as well as animal health. Balsam poplar plants (Populus balsamifera) is well known as a rich source of bioactive compounds with positive health effects, and might be used in agriculture as a feed additive for ruminants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of balsam poplar-based additives on growth and performance of fattening young bulls of Simmental breed. In the present study, we used 4 combinations of extract from balsam poplar buds or its components as a feed additives. The animals were given the supplements at the age of 15 months, 3 months before slaughter. The growth and slaughter characteristics of young bulls were studied. After the first and second month of feeding with dietary supplements, animals from the groups fed 10% balsam poplar buds extract and dry shredded balsam poplar buds had significantly higher live weight compared to the control animals fed a diet without any supplements (P < 0.05). At slaughter, group fed 10% balsam poplar buds extract had significantly higher live weight compared to control. Average daily gain was also greatest in that group. Major sensory as well as physical and chemical parameters were not affected by balsam poplar-based supplements (p > 0.05 for all) and were in line with regulatory meat hygiene requirements.

300-310 258

The inability to reproduce certain digestive processes in vivo, high research costs and ethical aspects have led to the development of a large number of in vitro digestion models. These models allow us to take into account various factors of modeling complex multistage physiological processes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes them promising and widely used. A significant part of in vitro methods includes assessment by enzymatic digestion and are based on the calculation of nitrogen remaining after digestion in relation to the initial total nitrogen (according to the Dumas, Kjeldahl method, spectrophotometric or chromatographic method). There are also a number of titrometric methods (pH‑stat), which are mainly used to assess the digestibility of feed, most successfully for aquatic animals due to the simplicity of their digestive tract. Methods for assessing the digestibility of food products by enzymatic digestion have undergone various stages of evolution (since 1947) and have been widely modified by including various enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, erepsin, etc.) in model systems, indices for various products have been determined on their basis (pepsin-digest-residue (PDR) index, 1956; pepsin pancreatin digest (PPD) index, 1964; pepsin digest dialysate (PDD), 1989). As a result, a single protocol was formed to study the digestibility of food — INFOGEST (2014–2019), which includes three stages of digestion (oral, gastric and intestinal). It allows researchers to accurately reproduce the conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract and is widely used by scientists around the world.

311-319 221

Rapid and objective assessment of food color is necessary in quality control. The color evaluation of animal source foods using a computer vision system (CVS) and a traditional colorimeter is examined. With the same measurement conditions, color results deviated between these two approaches. The color returned by the CVS had a close resemblance to the perceived color of the animal source foods, whereas the colorimeter returned not typical colors. The effectiveness of the CVS is confirmed by the study results. Considering these data, it could be concluded that the colorimeter is not representative method for color analysis of animal source foods, therefore, the color read by the CVS seemed to be more similar to the real ones.

320-327 188

The production of high-quality pork is closely related to the growth and development of muscle tissue. The present article provides a comparative proteomic research of l. dorsi, b. femoris, m. brachiocephalicus during the pigs’ growth and development (at age of 60 days and 180 days). This work was supported by data of electrophoretic methods: one-dimensional electrophoresis according to Laemmli with densitometric assessment in the ImageJ software and two-dimensional electrophoresis according to O’Farrell method with its further processing on the software ImageMaster. The mass spectrometric identification was conducted with the help of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system connected to a mass spectrometer; further the data were interpreted by search algorithm Andromeda. When comparing frequency diagrams of one-dimensional electrophoregrams of all three muscle tissues of weaned pigs, the greatest difference was observed for the muscle sample l. dorsi. Comparison of diagrams of muscle tissue samples taken for mature pigs showed a great similarity of all three studied muscles samples. Within the framework of the research, the Fold indicator was calculated. The exceeding its value by more than 2 units is generally considered to be a statistically significant difference. When analyzing two-dimensional electrophoretograms of weaned pigs’ muscles, 18 protein fractions were revealed with Fold > 2. When examining the muscle tissue of mature pigs, 15 of those proteins were found; the differences were mostly detected in the minor protein fractions. The mass spectrometric analysis of the cut bands with well-pronounced differences from the onedimensional electrophoretogram revealed 214 proteins involved to a greater extent in cellular and metabolic processes, physical activity and localization. Growth and development protein — semaphorin‑6B (96.78 kDa) — was revealed in muscle tissue of l. dorsi, a. Also in l. dorsi and b. femoris the growth and development proteins were found: cadherin‑13 (78.23 kDa), cadherin‑7 (87.01 kDa), the F‑actin-cap protein beta subunit (30.66 kDa), and two uncharacterized proteins at 65.60 kDa and 63.88 kDa.

328-334 240

Atherosclerosis (the main cause of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases) and other multifactorial diseases depend on several nutrition factors, defined in general by lifestyle that directly and constantly affects the human body. The modern level of science and technology development is able to form a diet, taking into account all personal characteristics in such a way that makes nutrition an effective preventive measure against diseases in order to keep a person healthy. The purpose of this article is to define and study all the limitations (the scope of its coverage in the scientific literature) that arose in the process of research aimed to formation of an integrated personal approach to designing of nutrition to prevent atherosclerosis. The object of the study was scientific literature, which is available in open source and free access databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, eLIBRARY.RU,, Patentscope. The language of search is Russian and English, search depth is 12 years. In the course of the research two food design concepts were found that affect process of digitalization in the food sector: the concept “FoodTech” (food technology) and digital nutritiology. It was established that in Russia only one company — LLC “City Supermarket” (Moscow), that works with the brand “Azbuka Vkusa” — acts in the sphere of “FoodTech” on the Russian market. This company selects personalized food, taking into account the results of personal nutrigenetic tests, in cooperation with LLC “Genotech” (Moscow). There is a need to use biological information, statistical information processing (nutrigenetic studies, nutrigenomic research) and machine-aided data processing (machine learning) for further generation of automatic algorithm that compiles personal recommendations. The relevance of generation of a national domestic database on chemical composition of food products (presented in the market) to simplify the preparation of individual personal diets is observed. We underline the necessity to use the test-organisms, i. e. dorio fish / zebrafish (Danio rerio) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans)), which were used to determine the activity of candidate substances — the biologically active substances that feature antiatherosclerotic properties. In the future the authors plan to conduct a nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic study, using digital achievements. To collect information about consumers, it is necessary to apply digital devices, and use biological informatics to process the results; after that it is necessary to generate the algorithm for automatic selection of personalized dietary recommendations.

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This research reviewed human meat consumption and highlighted associated history, challenges and benefits. Selected literature for the manuscript was from relevant titles and reliable international sources. From early times of the mankind meat consumption and animal husbandry were inseparable parts of living, and with similar consequences as dramatic influence on environment. Human need for meat consumption fueled development of large world markets with incredible trade, processing and consumption. This overconsumption has caused health problems associated with high intake of cholesterol and sodium chloride. Another problem with meat consumption is the use of additives in processed products. In modern time these problems are tackled by the use of additives from plants that have health benefits. Thermal processing is yet another problem with meat consumption that food industry and science addresses by non-thermal replacements (e. g. high-pressure processing and electrotechnologies). Recently, interesting alternatives for meat processing included 3D Printing that is able to engineer admirable meat products from by-products. However, this technology might need to employ enzymes such as transglutaminase, associated with potential health problems and misleading the customers. Unfortunately, fraudulent activities are common for meat products and it would be prudent to organize enforcement centers with at least police and analysts skilled in chemometrics and various laboratory techniques for food defense. It seems as humankind expands it will seek more proteins from plant, insects, unicellular biomass, and synthetic meat than from the animal origin, however all of the alternatives must be carefully evaluated against consumer acceptance, public health and environmental concerns.

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Human health is largely determined by the nature, level and structure of nutrition. A promising direction in the development of new food products is the expansion of the base of used ingredients used to partially replace meat raw materials with vegetable ones, in order to maximize the saturation of products with nutrients that contribute to the maintenance of normal life of the consumer. The use of new food ingredients contributes to the actual task set by the State policy in the field of healthy eating — expanding the range of enriched and functional food products. The work is devoted to the study of baked whole-muscle products using turkey meat and vegetable dressing as sources of high protein content, which solves the problem of deficiency of this component in the diet. A recipe for brine with the addition of the food additive “Glimalask”, which has a complex effect on the products under study, has been presented. The evaluation of quality indicators of finished products has been carried out, the article presents the results of a comparative analysis of baked whole-muscle turkey meat products, calculations of the product cost price. The comparative analysis has shown that, in comparison with the control sample, the baked whole-muscle products from turkey meat with vegetative dressing have improved physical and chemical properties, outstanding organoleptic characteristics, the yield of the product increases by 9.0–12.0%, depending on the formulation. Differences in the dynamics of microbial growth in the experimental and control samples were insignificant, the vegetable dressing helps to slow the growth of microorganisms on the surface of the product. The presented baked whole-muscle turkey meat products using optimized brine and vegetable sprinkles of chickpeas, sesame and paprika are recommended to a wide range of consumers of different age groups.

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Long-term cooking may reduce the eating and nutritional quality attributes of meat products due to excessive oxidation. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of concave induction to improve the quality of braised pork belly. Pork belly cubes were subjected to concave induction cooking (2000 W) or plane induction cooking (2000 W, traditional) for 60 min, 90 min, 120 min or 150 min. Then texture, fatty acid profile, lipid and protein oxidation, volatile flavor and sensory test in braised meat were evaluated. Compared with traditional method, concave induction cooking showed higher heating performance with shorter time to achieve a setting temperature. Compared with traditional cooking for 150 min, concave induction cooking for 60 min did not only produce a comparable volatile flavor and sensory scores, but also give better quality attributes, including lower hardness, chewiness, thrombogenicity values, PUFA/SFA value, lipid and protein oxidation. E‑nose results showed that samples cooked by concave induction for 60 min and 90 min showed a great similarity to those cooked by plane induction for 150 min. Concave induction cooking for 60 min also showed advantages to retain higher abundances of other volatile compounds including 2-pentylfuran, (E, E)-3,5-octadien‑2- one, 2, 3-octanedione, 2-decahydro‑1,6- dimethylnaphthalene when compared with plane induction cooking for 150 min.

368-374 219

The diverse culinary heritage of various countries in the European Union (EU) has been attracting attention for a very long time. This type of high-quality traditional food should be fully exploited and promoted as a common good that is part of the history of given countries. In order to distinguish individual products and their value (not only cultural, but also qualitative), the EU created special awarding signs (quality schemes) that conform to the quality of traditional products: Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), or Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG). One of the first associations with Polish cuisine would undoubtedly be meat dishes, which play an important role in preserving the tradition. The most popular types of meat in Poland are pork, beef, and then poultry. In addition, game animals are very popular, including wild birds (black grouse and larks). This type of dishes is prepared according to traditional recipes handed down from generation to generation. Products typical of the region obtained from local crops and animal breeding are used in their preparation. Thanks to this, traditional dishes acquire specific taste values, which cannot be recreated in other parts of the country.

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L‑glutaminase (L‑glutamine amidohydrolase EC3.5.1.2) is the key enzyme in enhancing the taste and aroma of oriental fermented foods by increasing their glutamic acid content and as a result imparting a palatable taste. Beef burgers were prepared using different levels of the partially purified L- glutaminase (2.0 to10.0 U/100 g) prepared from Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 32567. Beef burgers treated with 6.0 U/100g and the others treated with monosodium glutamate (5000 ppm) were chemically, sensory and microbiologically evaluated and compared to untreated control during frozen storage at –18 ºC for 3 months. Treatment with L‑glutaminase (6 U/100g) resulted in an increase of 443% in glutamic acid and a reduction of 63% in glutamine contents resulting in an enhanced preferable taste and odor of the prepared beef burgers. Burgers treated with 6.0 U/100g exhibited the best odor, texture, taste and overall quality scores when compared to the untreated control and samples treated with monosodium glutamate (5000 ppm). During the frozen storage of all samples, an expected slight, but significant (p≤0.05), increase in the total mesophilic bacterial count was evident and such increase was quite acceptable since numbers did not exceed the limit of 5.7x103 cfu/g. Similarly, the total psychrotrophs did not exceed 3.7x102 cfu/g.

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