Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 6, No 1 (2021)
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4-9 43

In recent decades in many countries of the world the development of sheep farming is determined by the efficiency of mutton production. One of the promising areas of selection improvement of sheep breeds of meat and meat & wool productivity is an application of molecular-genetic methods. To obtain high-quality mutton it is advisable to use the Altai Mountains sheep breed, which features by high energy of growth of young animals and their adaptability to all-year-round pasture management. One of the candidate genes responsible for sheep meat productivity is the gene of growth differentiation factor -GDF9 (growth differentia­tion factor 9). The article presents the results of research of polymorphism of the gene GDF9 and its relation with the parameters of meat productivity in young sheep of Altai Mountains breed. It was found that the rams-carriers of AA genotype outperformed their peers of AG and GG genotypes in terms of pre-slaughter weight, carcass weight, meat yield and meat content ratio by 1.62 and 7.01 kg, 1.34 and 3.98 kg (P<0.05), 1.21 and 1.86 abs. percent, 0.16 and 0.39 units (P<0.05) accordingly. The muscle tissue of rams of the desired genotype featured the highest content of protein, fat and, accordingly, energy value in comparison with AG and GG genotypes. The animals of AA genotype had the largest area of a rib eye and diameter of muscle fibers. The superiority over other genotypes achieved 1.55 cm2 and 1.98 microns in average. In addition the higher number of inter-fiber and inter-bundle inclusions of fat and lower content of connective tissue stipulated higher marbling score (MB)-higher by 3.32 points. The obtained data in­dicate that it is promising methods to increase the number of homozygotic animals in term of gene GDF9 by intended selection of parent animals whose genotype contains a desirable element for further improvement of quantitative and qualitative parameters of meat rate productivity in sheep of Altai Mountains breed.

10-22 38

Highly mineralized collagen-containing beef raw materials (tibia, fibula and costal bones) are a source of valuable protein nutraceuticals. They include high molecular weight proteins, oligopeptides and amino acids, which anabolic and physiological potential is used insufficiently. Protein nutraceuticals were obtained by high-temperature hydrolysis of beef raw materials in combination with enzymolysis by proteolytic enzyme preparations Alcalase 2,5 L, Protamex, Protosubtilin G3x. The water-soluble fraction of hydrolysates was studied after its separation and freeze-drying on the content of nitrogenous compounds, fats, minerals, formol-titrated nitrogen, fractional molecular composition. The mathematical dependencies of accumulation of low molecular weight products of protein hydrolysis on enzymolysis duration and doses of different enzyme preparations were obtained. The rational technological scheme of complex processing of beef raw materials with production of protein, fat and mineral-protein additives was proposed. The protein weight fraction in the freeze-dried protein hydrolysates was 69.5–89.6%. All studied protein additives contained peptides with a molecular weight of not more than 100 kDa. The content of low-molecular weight oligopeptides with a molecular weight of less than 10 kDa in the protein additives obtained by enzymatic thermal hydrolysis was more than 90%. The amino acid composition of protein additives produced by different hydrolytic methods was analyzed. Sensory and functional-technological properties of freeze-dried protein compositions were studied. The amino acid potential, high assimilability and physiological activity of protein nutraceuticals from collagen-containing beef raw materials were established. It is recommended to use them in the composition of specialized biologically active additives (BAAs) to food of the osteotropic direction in recipes of specialized and personalized products as a source of amino acids and active peptides.

23-32 50

The current state and research priorities in the field of using insects as foods and their components are examined. At present, entomophagy is practiced in Africa, South America and Asia. It is shown that the growing world population, which is increasingly limited in resources upon the rising demand for animal protein, has stimulated the interest to new food sources that can include insects as future alternative sources of animal protein. In the forming global model based on the growing share of renewable energy sources, entomophagy fits in as a renewable source of food energy. Over the last decade, the potential of edible insects as a new ingredient has been studied. It is noted that edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact compared to cattle. Insects have a huge potential at all life cycle stages as a source of nutritional and active substances and are a rich source of animal protein, contain essential amino acids, minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P), vitamins (В-group, А, D, Е, К and С) and unsaturated fatty acids. Assimilability of insect protein is 76–98%. Insect carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin contained in a range from 2.7 mg to 49.8 mg/kg of fresh matter. There are data that different insect species can have immune stimulating, sugar reducing, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activities, as well as the positive effect in cardiovascular and nervous disorders. In the western countries, different methods of insect processing were developed. The review summarizes advantages and risks of eating insects and legal practices of their consumption. Possible ways and strategies of stimulating edible insect consumption are analyzed taking into account that the majority of population in western countries reject the idea of eating insects. The review of performed studies notes the necessity to eliminate emotional and psychological barriers on the way of accepting edible insect consumption.

33-38 56

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using the orange albedo (OA) on the quality attributes of low fat beef burger. The analysis included: chemical composition, water-holding capacity, cooking loss% and pH values as well as sensory evaluation of low fat beef burger prepared with the introduction of the OA with a concentration of 5% as a partial fat replacer were also studied. Microbiological analysis of frozen minced meat semi-finished products (burger patties, at minus 18 °C) stored for 126 days was included. According to the obtained results, the OA contains 1.47% of lipids, 1.42% of protein and 24.61% of dietary fiber. The result also showed that the usage of OA has a positive impact on organoleptic indicators of beef burger. Nutritional value, waterholding capacity, cooking loss% and pH of treated burger patties were improved. In addition, the caloric value of treatment samples decreased because of replacing the animal fat with the OA in recipe. During the storage of semi-finished products, Thiobarbituric values (TBA) showed that treatment samples substantially developed using OA instead of animal fat had a lower level of lipid oxidation compared to control samples. The shelf life of treated burger patties was significantly increased compared to control sample by decreasing the microbial growth and rate of fatty acids oxidation. Finally, OA could be accepted as a functional component in meat products.

39-45 36

When processing cattle and poultry, a large quantity of secondary slaughter products in the form of bone raw materials are formed in enterprises of the meat and poultry processing industry. Nowadays, its use is not optimal and rational. One of the promising directions of using bone raw materials in enterprises is production of finely ground meat and bone paste. The aim of this research was to study the chemical and mineral compositions, as well as the content of toxic elements in meat and bone paste from poultry and cattle bones obtained after complex grinding on a grinder and ultra-fine grinder. Chicken bone products (chicken necks, drumsticks, wings, breasts) and cattle costal and vertebral bones with residues of muscle tissue were used for investigation. The comparative analysis of the nutritional value of the meat and bone paste showed the following results: protein mass fraction was 18.5% in the meat and bone paste obtained from poultry bones, and 12.1% in the meat and bone paste obtained from cattle bones. The mass fraction of fat was two times higher in the meat and bone paste from poultry bones. As for the mineral composition, it has been established that meat and bone paste is a rich source of calcium: the calcium content was 1,654.02 mg/100g in the poultry meat and bone paste, and 5,318.13 mg/100g in the cattle meat and bone paste. In regard to the toxic element content, the normed values of lead and arsenic, cadmium and mercury were not revealed in the poultry and cattle meat and bone paste. The obtained meat and bone paste can be used for food purposes as a food additive in meat product manufacture, which will allow rational and economic use of bone raw materials in cattle and poultry processing.

46-55 32

The article is devoted to preventive measures to eliminate the problem of dysmicroelementosis in order to increase the productivity of young sheep. The article presents the results of studies of the influence of feeding rations on the growth and development of young sheep of the Edilbaev breed, on the level of their meat productivity and the qualitative characteristics of biologically fortified lamb. Feed additives based on Yoddar-Zn and DAFS-25 were added to the main ration of lambs at the age of four months, once a day, being added into a fodder mixture with concentrates. For the experiment the herd of lambs was divided to four groups of 25 heads each.The changes in live weight at the age of four, five, six and seven months were analyzed, and it was found that at the age of seven months, the absolute average weight gain in the experimental groups varied from 3.45 kg to 4.49 kg, in the control group it was 3.1 kg, while the largest live weight gain was recorded in group III which received both feed additives based on Yoddar-Zn and DAFS-25.There were no significant differences in the parameters of body measurements, with the exception of group III, where the chest circumference increased by 7.2%, and the height of a lamb at the withers increased in average by 8.1%. It was found that group III had the highest meat density coefficient, equal to 3.9, and the cross-sectional area of m. Longissimus dorsi was equal to 13.61 cm2. It was noted that the amount of free amino acids of the lamb group III is 18.8% higher than the meat of the control group. The lamb obtained from the animals of the experimental groups showed a higher protein content and less fat. The ratio of water to protein in all samples was slightly higher than 3.7, which corresponds to the Federa number for meat raw materials. Enriching the rations of the Edilbaevskoy sheep with feed additives Yoddar-Zn and DAFS-25 promotes the stimulation of growth and development of animals, increases the productivity and nutritional value of lamb.

56-65 27

Production of convenient and inexpensive packaging materials is increasing due to the constant growth of consumer demand for safer food products. The paper examines the questions dedicated to the development and introduction of the safety and quality management system in enterprises producing packaging for the meat industry. The authors analyze the elements of safety and quality management for polypropylene packaging in a form of a tray, which is a final element of the united chain in production of whole-piece meat semi-finished products. The investigations were carried out in the operating enterprise in the Moscow region. Hazardous factors in production of polypropylene packaging were identified, risk analysis with assessment of the probability of emergence and realization of hazardous factors was carried out, a Pareto chart was built, unacceptable risks were determined, critical control points (CCP) were revealed, preventive and corrective measures were developed with account for the established critical limits and requirements for CCP monitoring were formulated. All stages of production process were subjected to risk analysis; the severity of consequences from hazardous factor realization and the probability of such realization were assessed by experts for each of these stages. It was established that “injection molding and chilling in a press-mold” is a CCT as there is a risk of increasing the maximum allowable concentrations of chemical substances and compounds (formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, alcohols and others) as a chemical factor with the severity of consequences of 3 and the probability of realization of 3. Using the Pareto chart, causes that had the highest effects on safety and quality of polypropylene packaging were grouped. It was established that nonobservance of preventive maintenance schedule for equipment and, as a consequence, possible equipment failure (80%) influenced to the higher degree the realization of chemical hazardous factor.

66-77 25

In recent years, the global demand for finished fish products is increased. Aquaculture raw materials are a rich source of nutrients for health. At the same time a large amount of fished fish raw materials are rejected and representing a losses. High-quality raw materials with technological defects are not in demand by the food production of fish products. Perishable substandard fish raw materials can be used in the production of combined fish products. The analysis of the fish catches global scale in the seas, oceans, farmed marine and freshwater aquaculture is carried out. An assessment of the market trends for the production and fish products consumption is made. This article provides an overview of targeted ingredient selection for balanced fish formulations. The characteristics of the most popular plant origin ingredients and their derivatives in the fish pates production are given. A comprehensive assessment of the biological, energy and nutritional value of plant products is given. Described technological approaches and production methods, the safety of vegetable ingredients. The results of research, technological solutions, substantiation of the choice of ingredients adopted by the developers for the formulations of multicomponent pate are summarized. The use of unclaimed raw materials, leftover fish meat with plant ingredients represents additional profit. Fish pate formulations are the basis for the production of complete, ready-to-eat products. Tests of multicomponent fish and vegetable products confirm their high performance. Pates, balanced in nutritional value, minerals, are a finished product that does not require additional preparation. The review article will generate awareness among the researchers, food technologists for the production of fish products and the general public.

78-86 28

It is known that processing methods ensuring partial or full microbial inactivation are quite limited. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop technique and technologies allowing the effective action on microorganisms without a significant influence on product properties. The use of cold plasma can be one of the promising methods of meat product treatment by cold sterilization. The present work examines a possibility of chilled meat treatment with low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma to increase its stability to microbial spoilage and extend shelf life. To obtain low temperature plasma, the equipment developed by the designing department “Plasmamed” was used. Chilled meat was treated with low-temperature atmospheric-pressure argon plasma for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were stored at a temperature of 2–4 °C for 10 days. Organoleptic indices, moisture weight fraction, changes in pH and water activity were analyzed before treatment and during storage. Sanitary microbiological analyses were carried out by the following indicators: quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QMAFAnM), the presence and quantity of coliforms, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus. It was shown that meat cold treatment with argon plasma inhibited the development of mesophilic microorganisms. The colony forming units detected in the samples after ten days of storage were determined by the duration of exposure to plasma. It was proved that meat treatment for 15 and 30 min had the bactericidal effect and facilitated an improvement in meat color during storage. The organoleptic indices of the samples treated with plasma corresponded to the requirements of standards and approved consumer characteristics.

87-96 24

Increasing of production performance of production systems and equipment in the meat-processing industry is integrally linked to maintenance activities. The article analyzes the influence of technological effectiveness, level of hygiene, reliability and simplicity of equipment design on the main parameters of meat products quality. Here it is shown that the strategy of Total Productive Maintenance (TRM) and Lean production is important tool for assessment of parameter of the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), which is used to assess the main types of losses that reduce the equipment productivity. The link of influence between the structural and mechanical properties of food masses, the moisture content of the initial food raw material, the temperature and viscosity, the processing pressure, and the density for the optimal operating terms of the equipment are analyzed in this research. With the help of OEE concept, the time losses related to the features of the equipment functioning are determined. The types of losses are classified as follows: downtime and readjustment (availability or readiness for operation) of equipment, short-term shutdown of equipment and a decrease in processing speed (productivity or performance rate of the equipment), product rejects and product losses (quality losses) during startup of equipment. While analyzing of the operation of vacuum filler for sausages production, the values of parameters of equipment availability, it productivity and product quality are calculated. The availability index is 0.79, the productivity index is 0.76, and the product quality index is 0.95. Taking into account the obtained data on equipment availability, productivity and product quality, it is determined that the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) accounts for 57%. The application of this method for studying the overall equipment effectiveness operation can be applied to any technological equipment used in the meat-processing industry and allows eliminating many problems that arise during the operation of technological equipment, improving its technical and economic parameters, and developing a system of measures for improvement of its maintenance and repair.

97-104 58

This article researches the basic principles of mechanism for finding the concentrations of essential oils (EO) which are efficient for antimicrobial action, when used as a natural alternative to synthetic analogues. The effect of EO of rosemary, sage, garlic, laurel, cloves, basil and thyme on the structural components of meat, its physical and chemical, organoleptic and microbiological quality indices was studied. The effect of EO on duration of microorganisms’ growth phases is analyzed. It is shown that the reasonable concentration of the essential-oil mixture (EOM) is equal to 0.1%, since at this concentration the optimal inhibition of saprophytic microflora was provided with satisfactory organoleptic quality indices (“taste peculiar for this type of product”, “pleasant fragrance”, “spicy aroma”). The analysis of histological structural changes in muscle tissue showed that application of EOM slows down autolytic processes, which correlates with the data obtained in research of the specific electrical conductivity in water extracts from the muscle tissue. The autolysis process in the control samples was more intensive in comparison with the experimental samples stored in the EOM. Thus, by 84th hour of storage in the control sample the basophilic staining of the samples slices was observed, as well as almost complete disappearance of the striation of muscle fibers. In the muscle tissue slices the disintegration of individual fragments into myofibrils, and myofibrils into sarcomeres, was observed in form of a granular mass, sometimes enclosed in endomysium. The meat fibers were deformed and their separation was observed. The same changes with the studied samples stored in the EOM occurred only after 204 hours of storage. The above studies of changes in the specific electrical conductivity of water extract from meat during storage showed the presence of complexes of EOM components formed with proteins and lipids of muscle tissue. The obtained data are confirmed by histological studies. Thus, the use of EOM allowed elongation of the cold storage period of semi-finished natural lump products by 2.6 times, which proves the practical benefits of its use in the meat-processing industry.

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