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Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 5, No 3 (2020)
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https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2020-5-3

4-11 47
Abstract
The article discusses the definition and mechanism of IgE‑mediated food allergy, provides an overview of the legal regulation of the production and labeling of allergen-containing food products. In order to prevent the inadvertent appearance of allergens in products during their production, an allergenomics procedure is required — a comprehensive assessment of the allergic potential of a food product: allergenicity of product ingredients, risk analysis, and the procedure for managing allergens in the production.
12-17 55
Abstract
There is no doubt that the further development in the field of nutrition is linked with personalization. Nutrition management with account for metabolism plays a key role in health strengthening and prevention of human diseases. The paper gives a review of studies associated with personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition is inextricably linked with personalized food products. At present, however, mass production of personalized food products for individuals or small groups of people is unfeasible. The devel‑ opment of personalized food products requires both time and labor input, as well as multidisciplinary and profound knowledge in a wide spectrum of areas associated with biology, medicine, nutrition and food systems. Among the most important characteristics of modern science is the study of complex and super-complex organized objects such as the food system. These objects were studied previously but by the way of significant simplification of their structure. Investigation of objects with all variety and complexity of their organization requires not only new scientific ideas but also a new conceptual framework, new research methodology, new approaches to simulation of both products and physiological processes. In this study, the authors made an attempt to bring the theoretical view on an individual product closer to the complex task solution using the method of mathematical physiology. The intuitive conceptual model for a process of food design is shown with regard to the “health passport” of an individual, disease risk and gastrointestinal (GI) tract status. The differential equations of the concentration dynamics of protein, denatured protein and peptides in the human stomach are presented. The differential equations that describe the process of protein assimilation in the human stomach were solved in the simulation environment Simplex 3. The presented fragments of model realization show the pos‑ sibility of virtual study on an effect of different indicators of the food nutritional value on the rate of digestion and the process of cleavage of complex components (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) to mono-structural elements depending on different state and influence factors.
18-21 64
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the transformation of meat product’s proteins from pig hearts and aortas during enzymatic hydrolysis in an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract. The model consisted of three phases simulating digestion processes: “oral cavity” phase (a-amylase, pH 7.0; 2 min), “stomach” phase (pork pepsin, pH 3.0; 120 min), “intestine” phase (pork pancreatin, pH 7.0; 130 min). The product was sequentially subjected to hydrolysis, at the end of each phase, samples were taken to determine the protein concentration (biuret method) and visualize the protein fractions (one-dimensional electrophoresis). A significant increase in protein concentration at the “stomach” phase was revealed by 3.2 times, and the absolute content by 4.6 times. At the “intestine” phase, a decrease in the number of peptide complexes with copper ions by 1.8 times, the absolute protein content by 8.5% was re‑ vealed. The noted tendency was confirmed by electrophoretic studies — at the stage, simulating digestion in the stomach, the prod‑ ucts of meat product’s proteins hydrolysis were visualized; at the “intestine” phase, a low expression of protein fractions in the range of more than 10 kDa is shown. The maximum hydrolysis of protein compounds at the “stomach” phase to poly- and oligopeptides was confirmed, continuing at the “intestine” stage with the accumulation of free amino acids. This methodology makes it possible to visualize the products of hydrolysis of proteins in a meat product at all stages of the model and to monitor changes in protein concentration in the system.
22-27 43
Abstract
The changes in the amino and fatty acid profiles in the semifinished foodstuffs (SFFs) based on broiler meat and coagulated chicken egg melange after different types of thermal treatment (water or steam boiling, braising, baking, frying) were studied. The amino acid profiles were determined on Knauer analyzer; tryptophan by standard method. The biological value of the treated products was assessed using amino acid balance coefficients calculated by the method of N. N. Lipatov. It was found that the changes in the initial amino acid profiles of the SFFs were the least after water and steam boiling; braising and baking were found to increase the contents of the essential amino acids. The amino acid profiles in the treated SFFs were close to the reference values. The best criteria of their biological value (coefficient of rationality of amino acid composition, comparable redundance) were found after water and steam boiling. It was found that all types of thermal treatments insignificantly affected the parameters of fatty acid balance within the SFFs; the changes found were primarily related to slight increase in total content of saturated fatty acids and increase in total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in compare to initial profiles, by 2.64–3.88% depending on the treatment type. The changes in ω‑6/ω‑3 PUFAs ratios were more substantial especially after braising
28-31 41
Abstract
Mustard is a commonly used condiment including in production of other food products. As mustard is an allergen, it is necessary to control its presence. The development of PCR test-systems for its detection is complicated by the fact that this condiment can be made from seeds of various plant species (Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, Sinapis alba) of the family Brassicaceae that are not closely related. This family includes other plant species such as white cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and rapeseed (Brassica napus), which can cause the allergic reaction, although seldom. In this connection, many authors use primers specific to many species of this family, including to allergens, to detect mustard. In this work, we used the similar strategy. To increase sensitivity, primers for the mitochondrial COX gene were selected. To increase PCR stability in analysis of deeply processed products, primers were selected for a region with a length of 61 base pair. In the work, the specificity and sensitivity of the developed PCR method was confirmed. Analyses of different products, including those that underwent deep technological processing, were carried out with these primers. Also, primers were selected to detect white mustard (S. alba). When analyzing products on the presence of white mustard, charac‑ teristic regional preferences were demonstrated: this species is used in manufacturing products mainly in the UK and USA.


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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)