Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 5, No 1 (2020)
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4-8 859
The paper presents definitions of digital twins. The authors examine a hypothesis that a digital twin of a food product is a mathematical (simulation) model that includes the whole variety of factors influencing quality and safety. An approach to the mathematical setting of the structural optimization task at different stages of description of the technology for a food product digital twin is analyzed. The first stage, which has several levels, is connected with correspondence of the nutritional and biological values to the medico-biological requirements. The second stage is linked with predetermination of structural forms, the third with perception of sensory characteristics (color, odor and so on). The universal method for assessment of quality and efficiency of a food product digital twin using the generalized function (integral index) is described. Different individual responses can be components of the additive integral index: physico-chemical, functional-technological and organoleptic.
9-16 1187
Three-dimensional printing (3D printing) is a rapidly developing market of digital technologies with a huge potential for food production, which gives an opportunity to create new food products with the improved nutritional value and sensory profile, and adapted for a particular consumer. The review presents historical aspects of the development of the additive technologies and their classification, examines advantages and drawbacks of the 3D food printing, discusses key aspects of safety of three-dimensional food printing and probable peculiarities of their labeling, analyzes potential possibilities of using the 3DP technology for meat processing and aspects influencing the possibility of printing and following processing of 3D printed meat products.
17-21 646

High hydrostatic pressure (ННP) technology has been widely used in the developed countries food industry for production and preservation of raw materials and products. In our country the possibility of a new processing method is being now tested only on experimental installations. For research we selected a pressure range from 200 to 700 MPa, the exposure duration at room temperature was 20 minutes. This article presents the results of the high pressure impact on pH, water-binding capacity of broiler chickens meat, moreover comparative assessment of range of losses that occur during heat treatment and high hydrostatic pressure were analyzed. The dynamics of change of the ultimate sheer stress depending on the ННP value is shown. It is established that the new technology in the selected range does not significantly affect the pH value. However the value of water-binding capacity increases along with increasing of pressure: during processing by 200 MPa it increases by 10.5%, within the range of 200–300 MPa it increases by additional 3.0%, and within the range from 300 to 700 MPa the value increased only slightly. Significant changes were observed in the determination of losses while technological processing of meat. Thus the losses during conventional boiling of broiler chickens fillets were 28.5% higher than during high-pressure processing. It is noted that within the range of 200–700 MPa this parameter increases by only 4.8%. As the pressure increased, the texture of the meat becomes denser, as evidenced by the results of the study of the structural and mechanical properties of the raw material. Based on the results of the implemented work, it is recommended to use ННP technology within the range of 600–700 MPa, processing time of 20 min at 20±1 ºС for production of poultry meat products.

22-26 678

As a consequence of insufficient study of water phase change in meat accompanied by water crystallization, its modeling is currently based on the empirical dependence of the frozen water portion on temperature. Such model does not allow answering a number of questions such as of metrological order, and also of physicochemical interpretation of processes occurring in meat during water crystallization. In this paper, we propose an approach to modeling the phase change process of meat during its freezing on the basis of the phonon theory of Debye crystallization, which allows to obtain physically justified dependences of heat capacity on temperature in the phase change region. The obtained dependences may serve as a simple method for calculating the heat capacity of meat in the temperature range of 113 K to the cryoscopic temperature of the given meat type, or as a basis for the analysis and correction of factors affecting the meat freezing in the temperature range of the phase change.

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The article presents the researches on the development of a feed additive for broiler chickens, including succinic (amber) acid, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, copper sulfate, lithium carbonate, L-carnitine, betaine. It was found that the introduction of the developed feed additive to mice food in a dose exceeding 5000 mg / kg per body weight did not affect the general condition of the animals. The experimental results did not allow determining the LD50 of the researched feed additive. The lithiumcontaining feed additive does not have chronic toxicity, does not cause pathological processes in the internal organs of mice and it belongs to hazard class IV (low-hazard substances). It was found that the introduction of a feed additive in amount of 2,350 g per 1 ton of mixed forage for broiler chickens (the concentration of ionized lithium is 66 mg per 1 kg of feed) allows increasing the content of lithium in cooked meat, minced meat and by-products in comparison with samples of products taken from the experimental group. The lithium content in boiled white meat is 0.418 mg / 100 g, which is 211% higher than in the control sample; 0.452 mg / 100 g in boiled red meat which is 426.4% higher than in the control sample. Eating of 300 g of boiled chicken meat fortified with lithium obtained in the process of broiler chickens cramming, this meat provides the recommended daily dose of the specified trace element. The obtained data allow using the raw meat and by-product for the production of lithium fortified food products.

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An analysis of an effect of the green tea extract on quality and shelf life of animal fats is presented. It is shown that the rate and depth of fat hydrolysis depend on a storage temperature. The higher the storage temperature, the higher the rate of fat hydrolysis and, consequently, the acid value. During storage for more than 3 days at any temperature, fats (except mutton fat) begin to change their properties. Mutton fat shows the first signs of spoilage (an increase in the acid value of more than 2.2 mg КОН, MAC ND) after 10 days of storage. An insignificant variation in the peroxide value of all tested fats during 10 days of storage, which was within the range of MAC, was established. After 10 days of storage, the rate of formation of peroxides and hydroperoxides rose sharply, which was confirmed by the peroxide value of these fats. Addition of antioxidants of the green tea extract in an amount of 10 g per 100 kg fat ensured appropriate storage of all fat types upon storage conditions that corresponded to the normative and technical documentation.

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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)