Theory and practice of meat processing

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The Journal “Teoriâ i praktika pererabotki mâsa”  (Theory and practice of meat processing) was founded by FGBNU “The V.M. Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute” (VNIIMP) (AT THE PRESENT TIME: V.M. GORBATOV FEDERAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR FOOD SYSTEMS OF RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES) and registered by the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media on 11.02.2015 (certificate of registration of the printed publication ПИ№ ФС77-60789, certificate of registration of the online publication Эл №ФС77-60810). In 2016, the Journal was assigned ISSN 2414-438X (Print) and ISSN 2414-441X (Online). Circulation: 1000 copies.  Frequency: 4 issues a year.

The Journal is distributed on the whole territory of the Russian Federation, in the CIS countries and foreign countries, and is pulbished in two languages: English and Russian.

The editorial board of the Journal includes 20 specialists representing the leading scientific-research institutes and institutions of higher education engaged in the problems of meat science from the Central Region, Moscow, Volgograd, Orenburg, Krasnodar and Ulan-Ude. Among them are two academicians and 3 corresponding member of RAS. The editorial board also includes 6 specialists from the leading research centers of Germany, Japan, Serbia, Sweden, Belarus and Kazakhstan, who are well known for their investigations of the fundamental principles of meat biochemistry and technology.

The top priority goal of the Journal “Teoriâ i praktika pererabotki mâsa”  (Theory and practice of meat processing) is to distribute in the world scientific community the results of the research in the field of meat science performed by the scientists from scientific centers, scientific-research institutes and institutions of higher education from Russia and the CIS countries, increase the level of presentation of the achievements of the respective science in the international arena, inform the Russian scientists about the research carried out abroad, highlight the results of the prospect directions of the research activities in the meat and poultry processing industries.

A double-blind peer review method is mandatory for processing of all scientific manuscripts submitted to the editorial stuff of “Teoriâ i praktikapererabotkimâsa”(Theory and practice of meat processing). This implies that neither the reviewer is aware of the authorship of the manuscript, nor the author maintains any contact with the reviewer.The Journal also publishes the articles of the foreign researchers.  The traditional sections of the Journal are original papers and reviews.

Current issue

Vol 6, No 2 (2021)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)
108-117 11

The polycomponent protein-lipid compositions are traditionally used in minced meat products to regulate nutritional value, functional, technological and organoleptic characteristics of the finished product. The present article presents the results of research aimed to creation of antioxidant-enriched protein-lipid complex (PLC) with the optimal ratio ω3: ω6 of PUFA. The ratio of lipid component was optimized by linear programming method, where the recommended ratio of ω-6: ω-3 of PUFA as 10: 1 was used as term of limitation. In result of calculations the fatty component was obtained by blending of rendered beef fat with soybean oil and sunflower oil in the following ratio: rendered beef fat — 73%, sunflower oil — 15%, soybean oil — 12%. After that the PLC formulation was optimized by research of influence of the introduced protein complex in amount from 4% to 10% and the fatty component in amount from 40% to 43% on index of shear stress of the PLC. The introduced amount of protein, fat and water is taken in ratio 1:(4–7):(4–7) commonly used in the meat processing industry to form the functional and technological characteristics of the minced meat. In result of experiments the following PLC formulation was adopted, which provides the necessary stable consistency of the mixture: protein complex — 9%, fatty component — 42%, water — 49%. To enrich meat products with vitamins and antioxidants it is proposed to include into PLC an extract obtained with microwave field 800 W from the Daurian rosehips which grows in the Far East region. The obtained PLC has a high water-retaining capacity; it remains stable while heating and it can be stored for five days without any visible signs of deterioration, as the peroxide value remains within the permissible limits. PLC features optimal ratio of ω-6: ω-3 of PUFA, equal to 10:1, and a high value of the total antioxidants equal to 5.4 mg/g.


118-127 11

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are formed in foods of animal origin during the Maillard reaction due to the high creatine and creatinine contents. HAA have carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. HAA content is not standardized in the Russian Federation and the Customs Union territory. However, in the EU countries, comprehensive monitoring studies are carried out on the HAA contents and effect on the human body. Due to constant expansion of the list of controlled contaminants in food products, analytical laboratories need to develop methods for determining HAA in food items. As a result of the research, a method for HAA determination was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in the mode of specified reaction monitoring. Comparative tests of the two methods for sample preparation were carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of sample preparation approaches were substantiated. The existing SPE conditions were optimized, which made it possible to concentrate trace amounts of MeIQx and PhIP and to dispose of substances suppressing analyte ionization. The estimation of method accuracy and specificity was carried out. The degree of ionization suppression by the matrix for MeIQx and PhIP analytes was determined. The degree of HAA extraction was empirically established. For biological samples of animal origin, it was up to 90.9% for MeIQx and up to 89.4% for PhIP. It is shown that, in accordance with the developed methodology, HAA may be determined with an accuracy of 96.15 to 98.4% at the levels of 5 to 20 ng/g. The limit of quantification of the target substances was 3 ng/g.

128-134 11

The current state, prospects for using and priorities in studying multifunctional protein lactoferrin (LF) in the food industry are discussed. Over the last decades, the studies of iron-binding, antibacterial, antiviral and antiparasitic properties of this representative of transferrins have determined quite a wide sphere of its use. The data on the lactoferrin composition, structure and activity are presented. The authors describe the modern methods for lactoferrin extraction and production from dairy raw materials both in the domestic and foreign productions using chromatographic methods for extraction and membrane methods for production. The practical experience in its application for food production, in particular, for meat and fermented dairy products, child and sports nutrition is discussed. An effect of technological process parameters in food production on the LF activity is highlighted. The study analyses an influence of new processing technologies such as high pressure or pulsed electric field in combination with classic methods for thermal processing and drying on the structure and activity of lactoferrin in food. The reviewed studies show that the use of lactoferrin in the meat industry, especially, in finished meat products, has limitations. The data presented in the review suggest a need for searching ways of lactoferrin introduction into meat systems to obtain functional products. One of the top-priority method for LF incorporation into meat products is LF encapsulation as one of the production stages.

135-140 14

The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of different pollen powder concentrations (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 g/100 g) had an influence on techno-functional, textural and sensorial traits of frankfurters. Examining the techno-functional characteristics of pollen, a conclusion was reached that the higher the concentration, the higher the emulsification and better techno-functional properties. Also, FTIR-ATR analysis has shown that specific pollen molecules provided good emulsifying properties of sausages. On the other hand, sensory analysis showed that sausages with the addition of 1.0% and 1.5% of pollen powder have a more pronounced floral odor. Warner-Bratzler shear force test has shown that the incorporation of pollen caused a more stable product throughout sixty days of storage than the control sample. It could be explained by the formation of more protein-protein interactions due to the addition of non-meat proteins in the formulation of frankfurters and obtaining a more stable product than the control one. All things considered, it can be concluded that pollen exhibits good techno-functional properties and could be utilized in the formulation of frankfurters with improved and steady techno-functional properties during two months of refrigerated storage.

141-150 14

The present article presents data on effectiveness of adding a phytobiotic feed additive into the diet of broiler chickens, either additionally or replacing the feed antibiotic in the chicken fodder. It has been established that the introduction of a phytobiotic feed additive into the broilers’ diet, both additionally and by replacing the feed antibiotic, provided positive effect on poultry meat quality and gave no negative effect on development of internal organs. By the end of fattening the relative weight of heart, lungs, kidneys, gizzard and intestines in broilers, which consumed the antibiotics-free diet with addition of researched preparation, was higher than in the control group and in the 1st experimental group. At the same time the length of the intestine in researched group significantly exceeded the control group parameters. These changes ranged within the physiological norm, which may indicate the best detoxification capabilities of the chicken body and the activation of enhanced intestinal absorption function. Additional use of the experimental feed additive in formulation of feed for broiler chickens was accompanied by a decrease in total amount of amino acids in broilers’ pectoral and leg muscles within acceptable physiological limits. At the same time, a significant decrease, compared with the control parameters, was noted in relation to content of histidine and isoleucine in pectoral muscles, and content of proline in leg muscles. The use of the researched additive as a substitute for a feed antibiotic in composition of mixed feed for broilers decreased the total amount of amino acids in broilers’ breast muscle, compared with the control group, and increased level of amino acids in leg muscles. The significant decrease in content of histidine and arginine in the pectoral muscles and proline in the leg muscles was noted. The observed changes varied within acceptable physiological norm. In the experimental groups the energy value of meat was increased.

151-162 14

Daily, researcher faces the need to compare two or more observation groups obtained under different conditions in order to confirm or argue against a scientific hypothesis. At this stage, it is necessary to choose the right method for statistical analysis. If the statistical prerequisites are not met, it is advisable to choose nonparametric analysis. Statistical analysis consists of two stages: estimating model parameters and testing statistical hypotheses. After that, the interpretation of the mathematical processing results in the context of the research object is mandatory. The article provides an overview of two groups of nonparametric tests: 1) to identify differences in indicator distribution; 2) to assess shift reliability in the values of the studied indicator. The first group includes: 1) Rosenbaum Q-test, which is used to assess the differences by the level of any quantified indicator between two unrelated samplings; 2) Mann-Whitney U-test, which is required to test the statistical homogeneity hypothesis of two unrelated samplings, i. e. to assess the differences by the level of any quantified indicator between two samplings. The second group includes sign G-test and Wilcoxon T-test intended to determine the shift reliability of the related samplings, for example, when measuring the indicator in the same group of subjects before and after some exposure. Examples are given; step-by-step application of each test is described. The first part of the article describes simple nonparametric methods. The second part describes nonparametric tests for testing hypotheses of distribution type (Pearson’s chi-squared test, Kolmogorov test) and nonparametric tests for testing hypotheses of sampling homogeneity (Pearson’s chi-squared test for testing sampling homogeneity, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test).

163-173 10

The overview presents the literature data and the results of our own research on prospects of using the chicken eggs as the basis of functional foods. The composition of chicken eggs and their components, characteristics of egg white proteins properties are presented thereto. The biologically active compounds included into egg composition are analyzed. The data on the biological value of egg white are given. The characteristic of egg white foaming ability is presented. It has been shown that the ability of proteins to form stable intermolecular structures, especially with partially denaturated proteins, allows them forming viscoelastic superficial films that ensure foam stability. The high foaming ability of chicken egg protein macromolecules is directly related to their interphase properties, i. e. the ability to form interphase layers at the “liquid —  gas” interface. The foaming properties of the various egg proteins are not equal, and therefore they contribute to foaming properties at various extents. The model of egg white proteins gelation is considered and the factors influencing the gelation process are described. It has been shown that very important changes in proteins properties are caused by denaturation. The proteins lose their ability to hydrate; the protective aqueous shell around the globules disappears, the proteins stick together, grow larger and lose solubility. This process is called coagulation. The influence of denaturation and aggregation on variations of protein properties is described below. Data on protein fortification with functional ingredients (calcium, iodine, plant polyphenols) and creation of functional egg and meat foods are presented here.

174-182 10

The paper describes an experiment on the development of minced meat recipes for poultry-based semi-prepared products. The design principle included a search for optimal compatibility of recipe ingredients to develop a balanced meat system. The model recipes included meat from different animal and poultry species, by-products and dairy products. White and red turkey meat and chicken breast fillet provided recipes with complete animal proteins. Fat meat raw materials were partly replaced with milk fat. A semi-prepared product filled into an intestinal casing was named “sausages for grilling”. A technology of sausages for grilling was developed with the indication of the main control technological parameters for the production process and thermal treatment up to product readiness. The incoming control of raw material quality was carried out: dairy cream was assessed by acidity and pasteurization effectiveness; cheese by sensory indicators; meat raw materials by the pH value. The functional-technological properties of raw minced meat for sausages for grilling were compared before and after cooking by the pH level, moisture mass fraction, water binding capacity. The rheological properties of minced meat (adhesion, viscosity, shearing structural-mechanical properties) were studied. The expedience of introducing meat by-products and dairy ingredients into recipes of sausages for grilling to stabilize protein and fat in the meat system was substantiated. It was proved that replacement of the main raw materials in recipes with pork heart, ginger, cheese and chicken liver allows obtaining sausages for grilling with preservation of high quality indicators. Sausage sensory properties after grilling were analyzed.

183-190 16

The review paper examines the main risk factors for microbial contamination of meat at different stages of its processing. Particular emphasis has been placed on primary animal processing being the most hazardous in terms of microbial contamination of meat. Carcass cross-contamination most frequently occurs during skinning and evisceration since hides and the digestive tract are the primary sources of microbial pathogens. It is necessary to observe stringent sanitary and hygienic rules when performing these operations. Continuous cold chain management along all following stages of meat processing and control of the sanitary status of cold chambers during meat storage are of extreme importance. An increase in the microbial counts due to the high number of manual operations was observed during meat cutting, boning, and trimming. Subsequent stages of meat processing, including mincing, curing, the addition of spices, also promote significant microbial growth. Strict control regarding detection of dangerous pathogens, especially L. monocytogenes, is needed at this stage. In general, to minimize problems linked with meat and meat product safety, it is necessary to take timely measures on sanitary treatment of meat processing facilities, including the prevention of biofilm formation.

191-195 16

The current state of studies on application and safety of food additives in various technologies for food production is examined. Considerable attention should be given to studies dedicated to analysis of food safety criteria due to a possibility of appearance of adverse consequences for human health and the trend towards increasing life quality. Special emphasis is placed on such parameters as genotoxicity and mutagenicity. It is shown that the most rapid and convenient tool for complex monitoring of product toxicity can be the bioassay procedure. Based on the review of the literature on bioassays for edible meat and meat products, canned foods, carbonated soft drinks, beer, milk and milk containing products as well as seasonings, the authors show that above mentioned products had the cyto- and genotoxic potential when tested on animal and human cell cultures, microorganisms and plants. With that, it was found that a list of relevant publications is quite small despite a significant growth in scientific research dedicated to food toxicity assessment using bioassays. A review on the conducted research on assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of foods by bioassay methods will make it possible to extend the understanding of the processes and mechanisms of this toxicity and form more rational concept of consumption.

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