Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 5, No 4 (2020)
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4-12 52

The article presents the results of the study of changes in flavour characteristics when using corrective additives. Monosodium glutamate, ribotide, yeast extract and hydrolysate of vegetable soy protein were used as flavoring additives (FA). To assess the effect of composition of meat product recipe, as well as the method of FA‑introduction on taste intensity, the recipes of model meat systems with partial replacement of meat raw materials were used. Pork fat, soy protein and potato starch were used as meat substitutes. The effect of recipe composition on the content of non-volatile substances of aroma was accessed. It is shown that replacement of pork by pork fat in the recipe by 20–40% led to a sharp decrease in the concentration of aromatic substances and a decrease in intensity of taste of the finished product several times. The ways for taste correction using FA was studied. For this, a chopped semi-finished product — minced meat was prepared from chilled whole-muscle pork and 0.05% of each FA was added. It is shown that the dynamics of changes in the content of free amino acids is the most pronounced when using monosodium glutamate not as a mono-additive, but in compositions: monosodium glutamate with yeast extract and monosodium glutamate with ribotide. A pool of chemical compounds involved in the formation of taste and aroma of products was detected. The main components were derivatives of C6–C24 fatty acids, as well as a significant number of other biochemical compounds, mainly substituted amines, amides, alcohols and ketones, with a content ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 mg/kg. The results of organoleptic analysis showed that the most delicious and attractive samples were those containing monosodium glutamate with yeast extract and monosodium glutamate with ribotide.

13-17 56

Innovative technologies for food raw material processing and food production are becoming globally important within the framework of modern biotechnology. The need to create a universal methodology for food design and the importance of its implementation in different lines of human life activity are obvious. Within the paradigm of modern biotechnology, personalized diets that take into consideration the genetic characteristics of consumers are becoming more and more popular. Nutrition science deals with the development of this direction. It is divided into nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. Nutrigenetics investigates an effect of modifications in genes on absorption of metabolites, nutrigenomics investigates how food components affect the work of genes. In this work, we consider mutations that influence the assimilation of metabolites and contribute to nutrigenetic research. The work is aimed at finding and studying genes responsible for eating behavior. Methods of analysis of genetic polymorphisms and modern achievements of nutrigenetics in the development of personalized nutrition are considered. The review allowed us to find and describe the genes that influenced human eating behavior: the role of genes, their localization, polymorphisms affecting the metabolism of nutrients and food preferences are indicated. Thirty four genes that influence eating behavior were identified, and significant shortcomings of current methods / programs for developing personalized diets were indicated. Weaknesses in the development of nutrigenetics were identified (inconsistency of data on SNP genes, ignoring population genetics data, information that is hard for consumers to understand, etc.). Taking into consideration all shortcomings, an approximate model for selecting a personalized diet is proposed. In the future, it is planned to develop the proposed model for making up individual diets.

18-22 50

Viral foodborne illnesses which have become a significant cause of all reported foodborne illnesses in recent years and considered as an emerging risk in veterinary public health. Foodborne transmission can occur by contamination of food by infected food handlers, by contamination of food during the production process and by consumption of products of animal origin harboring a zoonotic virus. Microbiological genomics studies discovered that noroviruses and hepatitis A viruses were primarily associated with food-handler transmission and sewage-contaminated foods while hepatitis E was associated with consumption of raw or undercooked meat of pig or wild animals. Routine harmonized surveillance of viral outbreaks, and surveillance of virus occurrence in food commodities, in combination with systematic strain typing, and joint expertise from veterinary, food, and clinical microbiologists would be recommended to aid source attribution studies and identify risk prevention measures.

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In Russia, in the production of meat and sausage products, the food colour, named as Red rice, is use. Red rice is obtain by the cultivation the strains of the Monascus fungus on various carbohydrate substrates, for example rice. That Red rice may contain the mycotoxin citrinin, but neither the purity of the food colour nor the safety profile are regulated. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of Red rice and to develop method for its determination in sausage products. The experiments were carried out on model and commercial samples of sausages. The samples were analyzed using spectrophotometry and highefficiency planar and liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed differences in solubility, coloring power, spectral characteristics, composition and ratio of pigments in commercial samples of Red rice. The extraction parameters of colouring substances from sausages model samples were determined. It has been established that Red rice is extracted with chloroform, acetone, ethanol and its aqueous solutions. Petroleum ether was proposed for degreasing sausages. Red rice from sausages was extracted with acetone because it did not extract synthetic colours and carminic acid. It was found, that 90% of Red rice is extracted from samples of sausages by double extraction with ultrasonic treatment with a power of 128 W. High performance thin layer chromatography method and high performance liquid chromatography method for the Red rice identification was proposed. The content of Red rice in the extracts was determined by spectrophotometric method. The developed method for the determination of Red rice was tested on commercial samples of sausage products.

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The paper proposes a model for the process of free moisture crystallization in beef within the framework of the Debye concept with establishment of dependencies of model parameters on the initial moisture content. Model adequacy was validated by comparison of the calculation results with the results of the experiments on determination of values of heat capacity and phase transition enthalpy in beef with different initial moisture obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry method. It is shown that the end of free water phase transition in beef with initial moisture in a range of 37% to 80% occurs at a temperature of 243 К. Calculation dependencies of parameters of the model used for calculation of beef heat capacity are presented.

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This paper analyses the history of Sci-Hub service requests for two food industry journals Nature Food and npj Science of Food for the period from 1.01.2020 to 29.06.2020. Trends in the development of the food industry and the most popular papers are discussed. Ten of the most popular papers from the journals Nature and Science according to Sci-Hub are presented to compare the popularity of papers related to the food industry and papers from other fields. Based on the analysis of the obtained data we made a conclusion that the popularity of papers related to the food industry is relatively low compared to other papers, which is a paradoxical situation. The data for this paper were provided by the developer of Sci-Hub.

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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)