Theory and practice of meat processing

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Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
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4-13 388
Implementation of the HACCP system in enterprises manufacturing natural intestinal casings is topical for ensuring high quality and confidence in safety of manufactured products. The paper examines hazardous factors in production of natural intestinal casings, analyzes risks with assessment of the probability of hazardous factor occurrence. To this end, a Pareto chart was constructed, unacceptable risks were determined, CCPs were revealed using the decision tree, critical control limits were established for each CCP and the requirements for their monitoring were specified. In addition, the paper gives risk analysis for the stage «salting» with expert assessment of the severity of consequences from realization of a certain hazardous factor and the probability of this realization for each risk. The risk of microbial growth due to addition of the insufficient amount of salt was classified as a biological factor with the severity of consequences 3 and the probability of realization 3. The risk of microbial growth due to violation of the temperature-humidity conditions and duration of holding on a site is also a biological factor with the severity of consequences 3 and the probability of realization 2. These stages are assigned to CCPs. Using the Pareto chart, the factors that had the highest effect on safety and quality of natural intestinal casings were grouped; with that, the percentage ratio of the revealed hazardous factors was established: biological/chemical/physical/allergens 65/20/15/0 for the whole technological process.
14-19 336
The article presents the results of substantiation of composition of technological aids for treatment of casings, which provides an increase in microbiological safety of the finished product. The study objects were samples of casings with signs of microbial spoilage, provided by the manufacturer, and prototypes of technological aids for treatment of casings obtained in VNIIPD. Parameters studied: microbial contamination of casings; titratable acidity, active acidity, density of test samples of the technological aids, surface tension and efficiency of aqueous solutions of the samples. Microbial contamination was determined using methods generally accepted in veterinary and sanitary examination; titratable acidity — titrimetric method; active acidity (pH) — potentiometric method; density — densimetric method; surface tension — ring method (du Noüy method). It was found that the surface microbial contamination of defective intestinal membranes includes the following microorganisms: Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. Among the microorganisms the most resistant to various types of treatment are Bacillus spp. microorganisms. It was established, that the samples of the tested synthesized prototypes of technological aids with most effective antimicrobial action were samples based on lactate-, acetate- and propionate-containing additives, including polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride. It was shown, that test prototypes 9, 19, and 28, which include polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and polyvinylpyrrolidone, have rather high antagonistic activity against test cultures of L. monocitogenes, E. coli, St. aureus, Sal. typhimurium with the folowing concentration — (600 × 106 CFU/ml). Minimum effective concentrations of solutions of technological aids for treatment of casings vary from 0,6 % up to 2,5 %. It was established that minimum effective concentration of solutions of technological aids for treatment of casings corresponds to concentration of the solution with maximum adsorption of the resulting complexes on the surface of the liquid-air phase boundary. Treatment of defective casings with aqueous solutions of the agents with concentrations of 2.5 % for 30 minutes provides suppression of growth of all detected spoilage microorganisms, including Bacillus spp.
20-26 370

The development of protein ingredients based on the composites from secondary collagen-containing meat raw materials and obtained by the methods of deep processing attracts increasing attention of specialists.

In the presented work, the composite and mass composition of the protein ingredient from hydrolysates of beef hide split, pork skin and blood plasma in a ratio of 45:45:10 was established. The improved amino acid composition of the protein ingredient due to addition of dry blood plasma suggests an increased biological and nutritional value of the developed product. Addition of up to 15 % of the protein ingredient instead of beef in the technology of minced semi-prepared products improves the rheological and organoleptic characteristics of the finished product.

27-31 630
The overview of studies of freezing and defrosting of raw meat, conducted during the recent years, is presented in the article. The freezing is the most effective method of preserving meat, so developments in this area are in demand by the food industry. There is noted the work on the creation of innovative technologies aimed at the optimizing of the freezing conditions (time, speed), reducing the loss of quality of the frozen products. Affected problems, which are appearing during the defrosting of meat, frozen in fresh and chilled condition. The interest of the use of the meat in the fresh state, which has not been in demand by the industry so far, is returning.

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ISSN 2414-438X (Print)
ISSN 2414-441X (Online)