Theory and practice of meat processing

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The journal “Theory and practice of meat processing” is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal covering a wide range of meat science issues.

We publish original results of the fundamental and applied research in the field of:

  • regulation of feeding rations and keeping conditions of animals (including poultry);
  • targeted modification (selection, hybridization, operative manipulation);
  • processing of meat raw materials;
  • improvement of technologies for meat product manufacture;
  • study of effects of meat and meat product consumption on human health;
  • rational use of secondary resources of the meat industry and the ecological problems of the industry

The journal “Theory and practice of meat processing”  publishes scientific and review articles, reports, communications, critical reviews, short research communications (letters to the editorial office), informative publications covering themes from the raw material base of the meat industry to innovative technologies of meat processing and food production, including the use of food biotechnology, from quality and safety management and risk analysis to information technologies, modeling in the meat industry as well as trophological chain management, marketing, economics, consumer demand analysis.

The primary objectives of the journal “Theory and practice of meat processing”  are to present, preserve and distribute results of the new scientific studies in all directions of the research activities in meat science; create a favorable information environment to support the innovative development of the fundamental and applied research in the meat and poultry processing industries; attract attention to promising and relevant directions of the meat science development.

The editorial staff of the journal strives to expand the pool of authors independent of a nationality, country of residence and territory where a study was carried out.

The journal “Theory and practice of meat processing”  does not charge for submission, translation, peer review and publication. All publication costs for the journal are covered by the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Founder).

The journal “Theory and practice of meat processing” is included in the Russian index of scientific citation  and registered in the Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU and DOAJ.

The journal has been published since 2016 with the publication frequency of four issues per year.

According to the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, the journal is included into the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Sciences and the degree of Doctor of Sciences should be published.


Authors of articles published in the Journal retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work. All articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC BY 4.0), which permits their use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

Open access

We follow the open access policy proclaimed by the Budapest Open Access Initiative to encourage knowledge sharing across the globe. For more information please read BOAI statement.

All articles published by the Journal are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.

Every article accepted for publication in the Journal is assigned a DOI number (Digital Object Identifier).

Founder and publisher of the journal "Theory and practice of meat processing" is the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Journal is registered in the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Registration Certificate Number: PI № FS 77 - 71611 of 13.11.2017; Online Media Registration Number: EL № FS 77 - 71609 of 13.11.2017).

The Journal is registered in the ISSN

ISSN 2414-438X (Print)

ISSN 2414-441X (Online)

Current issue

Vol 7, No 2 (2022)
View or download the full issue PDF
76-82 58

Effective isolation and purification of protein is a great challenge nowadays. The key aspect is protein stability and solubility, which primarily depend on protein structure and its amino acid sequence. Manipulations with pH and ionic strength are the first at  tempts to increase protein stability and solubility. Different additives that are allowed or prohibited in the food industry are applied for overcoming protein aggregation. Sugars, polyhydric alcohols and amino acids are the most attractive among them. Trehalose, glycerol, arginine, glycine and proline demonstrated outstanding properties that make them perspective for application during iso  lation and purification of proteins singly or in combination with each other or othercompounds. However, the algorithm of effective isolation and purification of protein could be significantly varied depending on its structure.


83-90 47

It is known that peptides inhibit the enzymes of viruses and are able to penetrate into cells by their embedding in the cell membrane, as a result of which the penetration of viruses into the host cell is blocked, which makes it possible to consider peptides as an alterna  tive to antiviral drugs. In this regard, the demand for immune-boosting nutraceuticals and functional foods containing biologically active peptides is growing. The immunomodulating effect of the peptides were studied on the mice of the BALb/c line that suffered from experimentally induced immunodeficiency; the mice got injections of peptides isolated from the bursa of Fabricius (bursal sac) of broiler chickens. 5 groups of BALb/c mice were formed. The animals of the 1st group (control one) received physiological saline per os as a placebo, animals of the 2nd group got bursal peptides per os at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg per body weight, the mice of 3rd group (immunosuppressed) got saline per os as a placebo, the 4th group (immunosuppressed) was administered the bursal peptides per os at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg of body weight, the 5th group was held as the control one (immunosuppressed group). Blood for tests was taken on days 1, 7 and 14 of the experiment. The functional activity of neutrophils was determined by the method of spontane  ous and induced chemiluminescence. Among the immudepressive animals (the 3rd group) on the 7th day the researchers observed a decrease in CD3+ by 55.3%, CD22+ by 83.7%, CD3+CD4+ by 51.9% and CD3+CD8+ by 54.6% in comparison with the intact (the 1st group). Administration of peptides to immunosuppressed mice (the 4th group) increases the number of subpopulations of CD3+ lymphocytes by 126.6%, CD22+ by 381.6%, CD3+CD4+ by 8.9% and CD3+CD8+ by 81.8% compared to immunosuppressed ani  mals, receiving saline per os as a placebo (group 3). Similar results were obtained on the 14th day of the experiment. On the basis of the performed studies, it can be argued that the immunocompetent organs of broiler chickens (bursa of Fabricius) are a promising source of immunotropic peptides.).

91-96 53

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) on the evaluation of disulfide formation in the oxi  dized myofibrillar proteins during the sample preparation of the non-reducing SDS-PAGE procedure. For this purpose, extracted myofibrillar proteins were oxidized firstly via a Fenton oxidation reaction, and non-oxidized proteins were used as a control. Before running SDS-PAGE, in the sample preparation, these oxidized and non-oxidized proteins were prepared according to the three dif  ferent sample preparation methods with or without the presence of N-Ethylmaleimide or β-mercaptoethanol. Results showed that oxidized proteins treated with NEM regardless of sample preparation methods presented attenuated bands of myosin heavy chain monomer in the non-reducing SDS-PAGE gels, suggesting that the disulfide bonds formed as a result of protein oxidation could be preserved by NEM during sample preparation. Meanwhile, a possible mechanism for the effect of NEM was proposed.

97-111 71

Raman spectroscopy (vibrational spectroscopy) proved to be an effective analytical approach in the field of geology, semiconductors, materials and polymers. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has attracted the attention of researchers as a non-destructive, highly sensitive, fast and eco-friendly method and has demonstrated the unique capabilities of food analysis. The use of Raman spectroscopic methods (RSMs) to assess the quality of meat and finished products is rapidly expanding. From the analysis of one sample, you can get a large amount of information about the structure of proteins, the composition of fatty acids, organoleptic parameters, autolysis and spoilage indicators, authentication of raw materials, technological properties. An important advantage of the method is the comparability of the results obtained with the data of traditional analytical methods. Traditional methods of determining the quality of meat are often time-consuming, expensive and lead to irreversible damage to a sample. It is difficult to use them in production conditions directly on the meat processing lines. Technological advances have made it possible to develop portable Raman spectroscopes to use directly in production. The article presents the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy, system  atizes the results of the use of RSMs for the analysis of meat quality from different types of slaughter animals and provides tools for analyzing the data of the obtained spectra. Raman spectra have many dependent variables, so chemometric assays are used to work with them. Literature analysis has shown that currently there is no unified database of meat spectra in the world, standardized protocols for conducting research and processing the obtained results. In Russia, the use of RSMs is a new,

112-117 81

Meat and meat products, which have a very important place in terms of nutrition, can endanger human health if they are not properly prepared and preserved. Meat and meat products except for products such as sushi, which are deliberately consumed raw, are generally consumed immediately after cooking. Cooking done properly gives meat and meat products their unique taste and aroma, increases their digestibility and makes them microbiologically safe. However, some harmful food toxicants can occur during the cooking process. Heterocyclic aromatic amines can be formed during cooking of the proteinaceous foods such as meat and meat products. Epidemiological studies have proved that heterocyclic aromatic amines are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, having sufficient knowledge about heterocyclic aromatic amines will help to reduce the health risk posed by these com  pounds. In this context, in the present study, basic information about heterocyclic aromatic amines that can be formed during the heat treatment of meat and meat products was reviewed.

118-124 67

The development of general conception methodology for the meat-based functional food compositions is especially relevant today due to the growing consumers’ interest and attention to their health. This category of these food-products is intended for personal  ized nutrition of various age groups in the population, taking into account fortification of the food with nutraceuticals and with functional and metabolically active ingredients obtained from animal and vegetable source. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a certain tool for reliable identification of free peptides from the offals (by-products like hearts and aorta from Sus scrofa and Bos taurus) and from the ready-to-consume meat food (canned food) based on the free peptides, which food is potentially targeted to help with some issues in the human body. The authors proposed the methodology for identification of peptides weighing less than 5 kDa. This methodology has a row of significant advantages, such as a short time of analysis (90 minutes) and the possibility to prepare a large number of samples simultaneously (n=16). Analysis of bioactive peptides (BAPs) was performed by liquid chro  matography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Agilent 6545XT AdvanceBio LC/Q-TOF). The marker peptides were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Agilent 6410 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS). All peptide sequences were defined with the help of mass spectrometric data processing databases like PepBank, BioPep, AHTPDB. In this work from 39 to 269 peculiar soluble peptides were found, with an extraction level of 0.17–0.23%. The main fraction consisted of short peptides less than 1000 Da (71.0–98.0%). In experimental samples of pork hearts and arteries 7 peculiar marker peptides were identified. FFESFGDL  SNADAVMGNPK peptide obtained from the β-hemoglobin protein is of a special interest, as this peptide showed the maximum intensity of a signal. Presumably, this peptide can serve as an indicator of the blood presence in the finished food product. So it can serve as an assessment tool of bleeding degree of meat raw. For pork aortas a specific peptide TVLGNFAAFVQK was isolated from serum albumin, which turned out to be stable during heat treatment. This is also important for assessment of meat food that are subjected to high thermal exposure.

125-130 68

There is constant necessity of developing the accurate and fast methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. Microorganisms of Campylobacter genus are one of the main causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. Fast identification of Campylobacter at all stages of the food life cycle is an efficient strategy to control foodborne campylobacteriosis. This article the authors evaluated a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system with bioluminescence, called as the 3M™ Molecular Detection Analysis (MDA), which was used to find Campylobacter in food products with the help of a certain standard method, which is referred to as the reference method. The results of this study showed that the commercial LAMP based method is as efficient as the reference method, and features high specificity and minimum determinability (sensitivity). The LAMP based method has been shown to be a fast and reliable method for detection of Campylobacter spp. scarce presence (10 CFU/25 g) in meat, meat products, as well as carcass swabs and production facilities’ environment. The LAMP analysis required about 24–27 hours to achieve a result. However the LAMP based method will facilitate the detection of Campylobacter, as it provides much easier and faster detection of Cam  pylobacter spp., including Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli, than standard microbiological methods. The LAMP based method is an efficient tool to prevent the spreading of Campylobacter spp. contamination in food products.

131-137 62

The present article represents an analysis of trends in development of test-systems for identification of meat. These test systems are commonly used in food production and research laboratories. The relevance of development of methods for identification of meat kinds is related not only to the food restrictions, which are practiced in some religions and related to consumption of certain types of meat, but also with the hygienic aspects of food production. Also, this research is inspired also by the acute issue of food products adulteration and the replacement of one type of meat with another one. The article considers the trends in the develop  ment of microanalysis method that use immunochromatic research, i. e. methods based on molecular biology. Also this article considers the devices that do not use chromatographic methods of analysis. Examples of the development of test systems based on various methods of analysis for the identification of meat are given below. Attention is focused on the prospects of combining these methods, including colorimetric methods for identification of meat. It is also specified that the emergence of new dyes and new enzyme systems, suitable for use in enzyme-immunoassay, can enhance the sensitivity of these test systems. It is also noted that the development of technologies associated with sorbents can contribute to a better separation of the test substrates and this way to increase the sensitivity of the test in case of small amounts of test substrate. It is also noted that the use of various types of iso  thermal amplification can reduce the analysis time necessary for meat identification. Various schemes of devices for microanalysis are given; their advantages and disadvantages are listed. An example of proteomes application for meat identification is given. It is shown that this method can also be applied in the heat treatment of meat. The prospects for the development of such devices are analyzed. It is concluded that the development of systems for microanalysis in the form of quick tests is quite relevant and promis  ing. It is indicated that theoretically in the future such analytical systems, due to the use of microfluidic technologies, will be able to combine several methods. The authors proposed to use machine-aided cognition methods to analyze data obtained from similar test systems in order to increase their sensitivity.

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