METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIPID EXTRACTION FROM BIOLOGICAL MATRICES
The paper presents the studies on the degree of raw fat extraction from meat systems by various methods. Relative differences in extraction methods are shown depending on the polarity of solvents used. Fat was extracted using the classical Soxhlet method, as well as two-step extraction. Specially prepared model systems were used as test samples including both simple and multicomponent mixtures in the form of meat-and-bone meal, bone meal, and meat-and-plant meal. It was found that when using non-polar solvents, a large amount of polar lipids was lost. The influence of the solvent on the degree of extraction for glycerides, phosphatides, free fatty acids and oxidation products was shown. A number of experiments are presented and the results are given on the degree of fat extraction using mixtures of organic solvents with mineral acid. The studies allowed to choose the best extraction method for each type of meat and meat-containing raw materials. Based on the results, methodical recommendations are proposed on the use of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvents and their mixtures. Methods of lipid extraction from food products after alkaline and acid hydrolysis are considered. Examples of fat determination by instrumental methods (refractometry) are given. Classical methods for fat content evaluation are described (Randall method, Twisselmann method, and Rushkovsky method).
All authors bear responsibility for the work and presented data. All authors made an equal contribution to the work. The authors were equally involved in writing the manuscript and bear the equal responsibility for plagiarism.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
About the AuthorsNatal’ya L. Vostrikova
Natal’ya L. Vostrikova — candidate of technical sciences, head of laboratory «Scientific and methodical work, biological and analytical research»
109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel.: +7–495–676–79–81
Oksana A. Kuznetsova
Oksana A. Kuznetsova — doctor of technical sciences, director
109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel.: +7–495–676–72–11
Andrey V. Kulikovskii
Andrey V. Kulikovskii — candidate of technical sciences, a head chromatography laboratory, leading scientific worker of the Laboratory «Scientific and methodical work, biological and analytical research»
109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel.: +-495–676–60–11
1. Nechaev, A.P., Traubenberg, S.E., Kochetkova, A.A., Kolpa kova, V.V., Vitol, S.V., Kobeleva M.B. (2001). Food Chemistry. St. Petersburg: GIORD. — 592 p. (in Russian)
2. Evstigneeva, R.P., Zvonkova, E.A., Serebryannikova, G.A., Sh vets, V.I. (1983). Chemistry of lipids. Moscow: Chemistry. — 296 p. (in Russian)
3. Tyutyunnikov, B.N. (1974). Chemistry of fats. Moscow: Food industry. — 448 p. (in Russian)
4. Proskurina, I.K. (2004). Biochemistry. Moscow: Vladospress. — 240p. (in Russian)
5. Severin, E.S. (2011). Biochemistry. Textbook for high schools. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media. — 624 p. (in Russian)
6. Yanovaya, S.M. (2002). Chemistry of fats. Moscow: ¬NORMALITY. 240 p. (in Russian)
7. Ovchinnikova, S.I. (2010). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins. 2-nd ed. Murmansk: MSTU. — 125 p. (in Russian)
8. Kodentsova, V.M., Kochetkova, A.A., Risnik, D.V., Sarkisyan, V.A., Bessonov, V.V. (2015). The effect of heating in the microwave oven on the fat component and the preservation of vitamins in food. Voprosy Pitaniia, 84 (5), 16–30. (in Russian)
9. Van Meer, G, Voelker, D.R, Feigenson, G.W. (2008). Mem brane lipids: where they are and how they behave. Nature Re views. Molecular Cell Biology, 9 (2), 24–112.
10. O’Brien, R. (2007). Fats and oils. Production, composition and properties, application. St. Petersburg: Profession. — 752 p. (in Russian)
11. Grachok, M.A. (1996). Chemical basis of raw materials and goods. Tutorial. Minsk: BSEU, p. 111–117. (in Russian)
12. Anisimov, A.A., Leonteva, A.N., Aleksandrova, I.F., Kamani na, MS, Bronshtein, LM. (1986). Fundamentals of Biochemistry: A Textbook. Moscow: High school. — 551 p. (in Russian)
13. Kiselev, L.Yu., Zabudsky, Yu.I., Golikova, A.P., Fedoseeva, N.A., Selifanov, I.S., Novikova, N.N., Myshkina, M.S. (2012). Fundamen tals of production technology and primary processing of livestock products. St. Petersburg: Lan. — 448 p. (in Russian)
14. Lisitsyn, A.B., Ivankin, A.N., Neklyudov, A.D. (2002). Methods of practical biotechnology. Moscow: VNIIMP. — 402 p. (in Russian)
15. Kolesnik, A.A., Elizarova, L.G. (1990). Theoretical Founda tions of Commodity Science of Food Products: A Textbook for Higher Educational Institutions. Moscow: Economics, pp. 72– 111. (in Russian)
16. GOST 31902–2012. «Confectionery. Methods for determin ing the mass fraction of fat». Moscow: Standartinform. 2014. — 19 p. (in Russian)
17. Mikulovich, L.S, Loktev, A.V., Furs, N.I., Brilevsky, O.A. (2001). Commodity science of food products. Textbook / Ed. O.A. Bri levsky. Minsk: BSEU. — 612 p. (in Russian)
18. Pizarro, C., Esteban-Díez, I., Nistal, A.J., González-Sáiz, J.M. (2004). Influence of data, pre-processing on the quantitative determination of the content and lipids in roasted coffee by near infrared spectroscopy. Analytica Chimica Acta, 509 (2), 217–227.
19. Wei H., ZhongHongjian, Wang Hong. (2004). Improvement on the determination of crude oil by Soxhlet extraction. China Oils and Fats, 6, 52–54.
20. Luque de Castro, M.D., Garcıa-Ayuso L.E. (1998). Soxhlet extraction of solid materials: an outdated technique with a promising innovative future. Analytica Chimica Acta, 369 (1–2), 1–10.
21. Kornena, E.P., Kalmanovich, S.A., Martovschuk, E.V., Teresh chuk, L.V., Martovschuk, V.I., Poznyakovskii, V.M. (2007). Ex amination of oils, fats and products of their processing. Quality and safety. Novosibirsk: Siberian University Publishing House. — 272 p. (in Russian)
22. Zhuravleva, M.N. (2014.) Theoretical Foundations of Com modity Research of Foodstuffs and Standardization: A Textbook for Students of Higher Education. educational institutions. Mos cow: The Economy. — 201 p. (in Russian)
23. Methods for determining the physico-chemical parameters of the quality of bread: the mass fraction of fat [Electronic resource: http: //www.russbread.ru/kachestvo-xleba/metody-opredeleni ya-fiziko-ximicheskix-pokazatelej-kachestva-xleba-massovaya- dolya- zhira.html. Date of circulation 04.20.2018]
24. Azarova, N.G., Kosoy, V.D., Dorokhov, V.P., Ryzhov, S.A., Pu dov, M.A. (2014). Determination of the rational content of fat in minced meat for the production of sausages. Storage and pro- cessing of farm products, 5, 35–37. (in Russian)
25. GOST RU14156–2015 “Milk and dairy products. Methods of extraction of lipids and liposoluble compounds. Moscow, Stand artinform. 2017. — 11 p. (in Russian)
26. Abrosimov, V.M., Burkitbaev, M.O., Tsoi, Yu.A. Method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Patent RF no. 2056045. 1996. (in Russian)
27. Okhrimenko, O.V. (2014). Analysis and refinement of the method for determining the Reichert-Meissl number of milk fat. Molochnokhozyaistvenny Vestnik,, 4 (16), 90–96. (in Russian)
28. Okhrimenko, O.V., Gorbatova, K.K., Okhrimenko, A.V. (2005). Laboratory practical work in chemistry and physics of milk. St. Petersburg: GIORD. — 256 p. (in Russian)
29. Yudina, T.A., Zaitseva, L.V. (2014). The role of fatty foods in the preparation of baked goods for specialized food. International Conference “Bakery Production 2014”, 59–63. (in Russian)
30. Krishtafovich, V.I., Kolobov, S.V. (2006). Methods and techni cal means of quality control of food products. Moscow: ITC “Dash kov and Co.” – 123 p. (in Russian)
31. Select your extraction method for fat analysis. [Mobility resource: https: //www.buchi.com/ru-ru/content/select-yourmethod -excess- for analyzing fat. Date of circulation 04.11.2018]
32. Bukhtareva, E.F. Ilenko-Petrovskaya, T.P., Tverdokhleb, G.V. (2005). Commodity research of food fats, milk and dairy products. Moscow: UNITY-DANA. — 295 p. (in Russian)
33. Chursina, E.S., Stupak, M.V. (2006). Methods for determining fat and fiber. Veterinary, 1, 10–11. (in Russian)
34. Mullen, A.M. (2000). Predicting the eating quality of meat. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. 12, 3–18.
For citation: Vostrikova N.L., Kuznetsova O.A., Kulikovskii A.V. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIPID EXTRACTION FROM BIOLOGICAL MATRICES. Theory and practice of meat processing. 2018;3(2):4-21. https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2018-3-2-4-21
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.